( B=Burmese/Myanmar pronunciation )



lakkhana:characteristics, sign, mark, attribute.

lobha: greed

loka: world, state of existence

loka-natha: refuge of the world, Buddha.

lokanatha: Lokanat: Lawkanat: Avalokitesvara: whose duty is to watch over the world before the coming of the next Buddha; a Mahayana Buddhist deity.

lokiya: mundane, worldly

lokuttara: supramundane, transcendental

lokuttara: beyond defilements and attachment, transcendent

lokuttara Dhamma: The nine Transcendentals, viz., the four Maggas, the four Phalas and Nibbana

lotus: a type of water lily , the Buddhist Symbol of Enlightenment.

Lumbini: the birth place of the Buddha.


macchariya: stinginess, miserliness.

magga: the Path, road, course

magganga: constituent of the path leading to nibbana

magga-phala: Fourth Stage of santification

mahabhuta: primary material element.

maha-karuna: great compassion.

Maha Moggallana: Maukgalan(B); one of Buddha's Chief Disciples, being second only to Sariputta.

Mahayana: ' Large Vehicle '; the form of Buddhism practised in Tibet, Nepal, China, Korea and Japan.

Mahinda: the Arahat monk, the son of Emperor Asoka.

majjhimapatipada: ; The Middle Path; The Noble Path of Eight Constituents

mana: Pride, Conceit, mind

mangala: blessing.

mano-vinnana: mind-consciousness.

manussa:mam, human being.

manuthiha; mythical half-human half-lion creature.

mara: the god of death, the personification of evil, the evil one.

marana : death.

matar: mother.

Maya: Queen Maya, mother of Buddha

maya: illusion, ignorance.

Meru, mount: (B); the central cosmic mountain axis; the sacred mountain

metta: Loving-kindness, Universal loving-kindness, goodwill.

Metteyya: Maitreya: the next Buddha.

miccha: wrong.

miga-daya: deer-park.

mitta: friend

modati: to rejoice

Moggallana: Maukgalan (B); one of Buddha's Chief Disciples, being second only to Sariputta.

moha: Ignorance, Bewilderment, delusion

monk: bhikkhu: oo-zin(B):oo-pazin(B) :the adult member of the Sangha Order.

mudita: Altruistic joy

mudra: hand gestures on statures of the Buddha, symbolizing different meanings

mula: basic.

muni: a 'silent one', a sage

musa-vada: falsehood, lie.


Nagas: big snake-like creatures, often seen sheltering or protecting the Buddha; attendants of the King of the western direction.

nana - 'knowledge, comprehension, intelligence, insight'

nama: mind, mind object, a collective time for all mental processes.

nama-dhamma: mental factors.

nama-rupa: name and form, mind and body.

nanadassana: insight and vision.

navakamma vatthu: cash donation.

nibbana : ; Nirvana (Sanskrit): final bliss, final emancipation, final release from the cycle of birth and death, the state of liberation; it constitutes the highest and ultimate goal of all Buddhist aspirations, i.e., absolute extinction of that life-affirming will manifested as Greed, Hate, Delusion, and convulsively clinging to existence, and therewith also the ultimate and absolute deliverance from all future rebirth, old age, disease and death, from all suffering and misery.

nibbida: disgust.

nicca: permanent.

Nikaya Part of the Sutta Pitaka; e.g., Digha Nikaya, Majjhima Nikaya, Samyutta Nikaya, Aªguttara Nikaya, Khuddaka Nikaya.

nimitta: 'sign', mental image appearing in Meditation; a sign of something to come.

nirodha: cessation

nirodha Sacca: The Truth of cessation of Suffering

nirodha sammapatti: attainment of cessation of consciousness

niraya; Naraka: a place of continuous extreme mental and physical pain sometimes compared with hell; but it is different from hell because suffering in Niraya is not everlasting like suffering in hell. Avici Niraya is the most fearful of all Nirayas.

nisidati: to sit down.

nivarana: hindrances; hatred, restlessness and remorse, sloth, and topor and doubt.

niyama: cosmic law.


obhasa: illumination.

oja: nutrient, food

okasa: permission, open space.

okasa loka: the inanimate world; the habitat of living beings, biosphere

ottapa: fear of doing evil

ovada: admonition, exhortation, advice.

ovadana: advice.


paccaya: relation, cause, condition.

pacceka: private, by oneself.

paccekabuddha: One who, like the Buddha, is Self-Enlightened in the Four Noble Truths and has uprooted all the moral defilements (kilesas). However, he cannot teach others. Paccekabuddhas appear during the absence of the Buddha Sasana (Teaching).

pacittiya: Fault due to a bhikkhu's negligence

padhana: basic, principal.

pagoda: the generic English term for Zei-di, stupa or temple, characterized by a series of superimposed spires.

pakasaniya kamma: an act of Proclamation carried out by the Order of the Samgha regarding a member declaring that as his conduct was of' one kind before and is of another kind now, henceforth all his physical and verbal actions are only his and have nothing to do with the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Samgha.

pali - the Vernacular language of northern India in the Buddha's time. The original language for the Buddhist text. The canon of Buddhist writings :

Pali Canon: the basic Buddhist Scriptures.

pandita: the wise, the learned

pandukambala: Sakka's throne.

panha: question.

panka: five.

pankakkhandha: five aggregates.

pankasila: the five basic precepts of morality.

panita: sublime.

pannã: wisdom, understanding, knowledge, intelligence, comprising all the higher faculties of cognition. Insight.

paramattha: The highest good, truth in the ultimate, absolute, sense, philosophical truth.

paramattha Sacca: The truth in the ultimate, absolute, sense.

parami: perfection.

parajika: offence entailing the loss of the status of bhikkhu for life.

paribbajaka: a wandering ascetic; paribbajika: wandering female ascetic

parideva: lamentation.

parikamma: preliminary.

parinibbana: ; passing into Nibbana at death of a Buddha or an arahat;

parikkhra: 'eight compulsory requisites' of a novice are Alms bowl , two upper robes, one under-wear robe, one girdle, a razor knife, needle and water strainer.

parisa: assmbly, gathering.

parittas: religious stanzas , usually recited for protection against harmful influences.

pariyatti: the body (doctrine ) of teachings; adequacy, accomplishment, competency, capability, accomplishment in the scriptures, study of the Buddhist texts.

pathavi: earth.

patigha:Repulsion; repugnance; anger.

paticca:depending on, because of.

paticcasamuppada: the principle or doctrine of Dependent Origination, Causal genesis

patigha: resentment.

patiloma: the order of cessation

patimokkha: Rule designed for watching one's behaviour.

patimokkhasamvara sila: the morality of the vows of the monastic order.

patipatti: the practice of the Dhamma.

pativedha: the realizable aspect of the Dhamma

peta: the departed, a miserable being who is always hungry in a lower world

phala: fruition, result.

pharusa course, rough, harsh.

phassa touch, contact, impression

photthabba: to be touched

piti: delight, joy, satisfaction

piya: affection

pubbenivasanussati nana: the power of recollection of past existences

puja, pujana: Reverence ( after Temple worship in Hinduism ), offering.

punna: merit, pure, sacred.

puthujjana: ordinary person or monk, a common man; one who has not attained any of the Maggas, not yet on the Holy path, worldling.


raga: passion, lust, desire

Rãhulã : the only son of The Prince Siddhatta.

rupa: form, one of five khandhas, material form, visible form.

rupakkhandha: form or matter aggregate.

rupavacara: belonging to the realm of material form.


sabbannuta:all-knowing, omniscient.

sacca: Truth, the Four Noble Truths

sadda: sound, voice.

saddha : faith, belief, confidence, reliance.

sadhu: Interjection of satisfaction being often pronounced thrice at the end of a teaching or to acknowledge the benevolent character of an action being performed.

sakadagami : once-returner, one who has destroyed the first three fetters

Sakka: The "King of Devas "; the lord over the celestial beings in the heaven of the "Thirty-Three ".

sakkayaditti personality belief, concept of self.

Sakyamuni: another name of the Buddha: 'Sage of the Sakyas'

salayatana: the six senses bases (eye, ear, nose, tongue, touch and mind)' the six fields of sense perception

samadhi: concentration attained through meditation

samana: a recluse, monk or medicant

samanera : Novice. Status preceding that of monk or bhikkhu.

samapatti: Sustained deep mental absorption in concentration, attainment.

samatha:calming, tranquillity, concentration, serenity.

samatha bhavana: concentration meditation..

sambodhi: perfect knowledge, enlightenment.

samgha : Sangha: the Buddhist Order

samghadisesa: serious fault entailing a meeting of the sangha

samma: perfect, right.

sammaajiva: Right Livelihood

sammaditthi: Right Understanding or View,

sammakammanta: Right Action

sammasamadhi: Right Concentration.

samma sambuddha: perfect, fully-awakened. It is the state of one by whom the Liberating Law (dhamma) which had become lost to the world, has again been discovered, realized and clearly proclaimed to the world.

sammasankappa: Right Thought, right intention.

sammasati: Right Mindfulness

sammavaca: Right Speech

samma vayama : Right Effort

sammuti : convention.

sammuti sacca: conventional reality.

sampajanna:full awareness, comprehension.

sampajanati: knows or understand fully.

samsara: stream of existence; round of existences; round of rebirths; cycle of life and death; 'wandering on', transmigration.

samudaya: rise, origin, cause

samudda: sea.


samvega:religious emotion, agitation.

samyojanas: ten fetters: self-view or personality belief, sceptical doubt, blind attachment to rites,

sankhara - volitional formations

santi- peace

saranagamana- going for refuge

sasana - the dispensation of the Buddha; Buddha's teaching .

sassatavada - eternalistic view

satipatthana: Establishment of the attention; Meditation

sati: mindfulness, awareness

satta: a being.

savaka : a disciple of the Buddha

savakasangha - community of (noble) disciples

sekha: trainer.

Siddhatta;Siddhartha (Sanskrit): means " wish fulfilled "; the Indian prince who became enlightened as the Buddha

sikkhapda:training precepts.

sila: moral virtue, morality, moral practice or conduct; the Five, Eight or Ten Precepts

silabbataparamasa : clinging to mere rules and ritual one of the fetters, inhibiting attainment.

soka: sorrow, grief.

somanassa:joy, mental pleasure.


sotapanna: stream enterer, stream winner, who has destroyed the three of the fetters and is assured of enlightenment in no more than seven lifetimes; the first of the four groups of Noble Personalities; the Sotapanna is one who by meditation has realised the truth of Anatta

sotapatti: entering upon the Holy Stream.

sotapattimagga: the first Magga attained by one who has entered the current of emancipation. This is followed immediately by sotapattiphala .

sotapattiphala : the 'fruit' of 'fruition' of stream-entering; it follows Sotapatti Magga.

stupa: zei-di, a dome or pagoda built to mark a Buddhist holy place or collection of sacred relics, burial mound.

suddhi: purity.

Suddhodana: father of the Buddha

sugati or suggati: happy plane of existence

sukha: happiness, bliss, satisfactoriness

sunyata: emptiness, without intrinsic essence

suriya: the sun.

sutta: sutra (Sanskrit); a discourse, a scripture containing the teachings of Buddha, wellsaid word

sutta pitaka: ; the 'basket' of collection of the Buddha's discourses.

suttanta: a chapter of the Scriptures, a text, a discourse, a sutta, a dialogue.

suvanna: gold.


tandaga: temporarily.

tanha: craving, desire, the main cause of Suffering.

tanha-upadana: craving and clinging

Tathagata : one who has found the Truth; synonym for the Buddhas; the 'perfect one': The epithet of an Arahant

Tavatimsa Heaven: the second of the six Buddhist Heavens or Deva-loka, standing at the top of Mount Meru.

thera: an Elder, a senior member of the Buddhist Order: but often applied to bhikkhus in general.

Theravada : ' the Doctrine of the Elders '; the form of Buddhism practised in Sri lanka, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia and Laos, considered to be the original and orthodox form of Buddhism

therigatha- verses of the arahat nuns

thina-middha: stiffness and torpor.

Tipitaka: Tripitaka (Sanskrit); the ' Three Baskets ' : the classic Buddhist Scriptures; the three divisions of the Buddhist Canonical works, 1. i.e., (1) The Section of the Sangha Rules (Vinaya), (2) Section of the Discourses (Suttanta), (3) The section of the Higher Doctrine (Abhidhamma).

tisarana: the three refuges, the three jewels ( Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha)

ti-pitaka-dhara:Knowing the Ti-pitaka by heart.

Triple Gem: the Three Jewels; Tisarana; The Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha; the core of the Buddhist Faith: the three ratanas

tusitã , tushita Heaven: where the next Buddha, Metteyya is waiting to come down to earth at the appropriate time.


uccheda-ditthi: Annihilation belief.

udana: verse or stanza of exultation, solemn utterance.

upadana : clinging, grasping, attachment

upacarasamadhi- access concentration

upasampada- ceremony of full ordination as a bhikkhu

upajjhaya: preceptor.

upasaka: the male followers, lay man, lay disciple, (of the Buddha) who do not follow the strict rules of Samgha, male lay devotee.

upasika: lay woman, female lay devotee, (see above).

upekkha: Upeksha: equanimity, indifferent feeling

uposatha Days: specially assigned days of the month on which the Buddhists observe the Uposatha (eight) precepts and the members of the Order to recite patimokkha; Sabbath days; days set aside in conformity with the lunar calendar for special observance of religious duties and of the additional precepts involving fasting after midday. They occur on the new-moon day, the full-moon day and the two days of the first and the last moon quarter.

uposatha sila: the eight moral precepts, the observance of Sabbath

uttama: noble, highest, greatest.

uttara: higher, greater, northern, upper.

uttarasanga: upper robe.

utu: favourable conditions for germination; warmth; season; physical compatibility


vaca: word, speech

vacikamma: verbal action

vajrayana: ' Diamond Vehicle '; a form of Mahayana Buddhism, popular in Tibet

vassa : the three month "rains residence" for bhikkhus, rainy season; rainy season retreat

vatthu: property, thing, story, site for a house.

vayama: effort.

vayo: air, wind element

veda; sacred book of Hinduism, the collection of hymns.

vedana : feeling, sensation, one of the five khandhas

vedanakkhanda : the aggregate of feeling

vedananupassana- contemplation of feelings

vibhava: non-existence, annihilation.

vibhavatanha : craving for non-existence

vicikicchã : doubt

vihara: sanctuary, chapel for the Buddha images; a dwelling place for the Buddhist monks, cave dwellings for monks

vijja: science, highest knowledge.

vimokkha: liberation from existence; Nibbana

vimutti; release.

vinaya: the Disciplinary Rules of the Order (the Samgha); strict guidelines for monks, training, removal.

vinicchaya: decision, trial, judgment (given by the King or his Ministers) having the Vinaya as the Law Court.

vinnana: consciousness, mind.

vinnanakkhanda - the aggregate of consciousness

vipaka: effect, results of kamma; fruit, consequence

vipakavatta: phase of resultants

vipallasa: perversions

vipariyesa: contrariness; wrong state; reversal.

vipassana: A major form of Meditation: inward vision, Insight, intropection, investigation in various way.

vipassanayana: the vehicle of insight

viraga : dispassion; devoid of lust.

visakha(Wesak): A month corresponding to the month of May-June. Festival of the Anniversary of the Buddha's Birth, Enlightenment and Parinibbana.

visuddhi ; purification.

vitikkama - transgression

vyadhi: sickness.


yagu: rice gruel.

yakkhas: demon, attendants of the King of the northern direction.

yama: celestial realm where pain has been eradicated

yamaraja: king of Niraya

yana: vehicle.

Yasodhara : Bhaddakaccãna; wife of Prince Siddhatta; brother of Devadatta.

yathabhuta: in reality, as things are, as it is.

yathabhutananadassana - knowing and seeing things as they really are

yoga: yoke, binding, restriction

yogi: a person who practises Meditation

yojana: unit of distance measure ( variously taken as approximately 7 to 12 miles); the word is often quoted in the Suttas

yoniso manasikara - wise consideration

Some Burmese/Myanmar Words

Ashin (B): Venerable

Byaw(B): ritual drum for religious ceremony.

hsun(B): 'Soon'(B): meals for monks.

Kason (B): The Myanmar month for parts of May and June

Koyin(B): Shin (B) ; young novice.

Koyin-gyi (B): old novice.

Kutho (B): merit acquired through doing good.

mandap (B): pavilion for religious ceremony

Nadaw (B): Myanmar month covering parts of November and December.

nat (B) : the guardian spirit being.

nar- tha (B): ear-boring for the first time for young girls.

parabaik: the ancient folding book.

paya (B): 'Holy one', often applied to the Buddhist figures.

phongyi (B): Buddhist monk.

phongyi pyan (B): cremation ceremony for distinguished monk.

phongyi kyaung (B): monastery.

pothudaw (B): meaning good layman. They used to wear white clothes with their heads shaved, and they observed five precepts only.

sayadaw (B) : Chief Abbot of the monastery: kyaung htaing sayadaw (B) : Chief Resident Monk.

saya (B): teacher (male); sayama : teacher (female)

sayagyi (B): great teacher (male); sayamagyi: great teacher (female)

shin (B): novice: Junior member of the Monastic Order (male).

shin Laung (B) : novice; boy- aspirant; boy-postulant;

shinpyu (B): the Initiation Ceremony for boys entering the monastery for the first time.

soon (B): hsun(B): alms offered to the monks .

Tabaung (B) : Myanmar Month equivalent to parts of March and April.

Tapodwe (B) : Myanmar Month equivalent to parts of February and March.

tazaung (B): the shrine building

tazaungmon (B) : Myanmar Month equivalent to parts of October and November.

thabeik ( B): the food bowl of the monks

thain (B) : the ordination hall for the monks; Sima (P)

thela-shin (B): a Buddhist nun in Burma, also called 'Sayar lay' 'Theikhar-shin'

U (B): equivalent to 'Mr.', usually for lay men, but can be used for monks as well. 'Daw' is the title for older or respectable women; 'Ko' and 'Ma' are for young man and woman; 'Maung' and 'Ma' are for boy and girl respectively.

Waso (B): Myanmar month covering parts of July and August.

Zawgyi (B): alchemist.

Zayat (B): the spacious resting place for the worshippers.

Zei-di (B): Cetiya: Pahto, Thupa, Stupa.