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Volume Two, Part One, 1994; Translated by U Ko Lay and U Tin Lwin

Realisation of the three knowledges; Pu, Di, A

Having won his victory over Vasavatti Mara also called Deva putta Mara before sun-set on the Full-moon of Vesakha in the year 103 Maha Era, the Bodhisatta realised the three knowledges, (Vijjas), in succession as follows: knowledge of past existences (Pubbenivasanussati Nana), in the first watch of that night; divine power of sight, (Dibbacakkhu Nana), in the middle watch of the night and knowledge of extinction of moral intoxicants (Asvakkhaya Nana), in the last watch of the night, and attained Buddhahood in the very last watch of the night of the Vesakha Full-moon. To describe the said events in detail:

How Pubbenivasanussati Abhinna (Pu) was realized

The physical and mental processes which had taken place in the past: Nibbana which becomes known from these physical and mental processes, one's personal names, clan names etc., which are merely conventional terms--all this (belonging to the past) is called 'Pubbenivasa' in Pali. The psychic power (Abhinna) accompanying the remembrance of Pubbenivasa is called Pubbenivasanussati Abhinna knowledge of former existences. The Buddha teaches it as the first Vijja Nana. This first Vijja Nana has been abbreviated as Pu by ancient scholars taking the initial syllabus of the word Pubbenivasanussati Abhinna. The following is an account in detail as to how the first Vijja Nana was realized by the Bodhisatta:

When the noble Bodhisatta was remaining on the Invincible Throne, delighted and happy after being thus victorious over Vasavatti Mara, many Devas and Brahmas dwelling in the ten thousand world-systems including the earth-bound spirits, Bhumma Devas, came to the Bodhisatta simultaneously and assembled, shouting and exclaiming, "Come, Friends, Devas and Bramhas, the victory of the noble Bodhistatta and the defeat of Mara have been made clear. Let us hold together an auspicious celebration in honour of the victory of the noble Bodhisatta and the coming attainment of his Buddhahood.

At that time, the sun-disc, fifty yojanas in size, magnificent with a thousand rays, was about to disappear like a gold wheel of a cart being held by the rim and dipped into the whirlpool of the great ocean. The moon chariot forty yojanas in size, giving out cool, shining beams of light, brightening up the entire universe, was just rising up slowly from the milky ocean in the east as of the silvery wheel of a cart being thrown up into the sky (by some one) holding it by the rim. (Try to visualise universe as a large golden palace.) In the middle of this golden palace, the Bodhisatta looked very graceful, the golden colour of his body making the Maha Bodhi high ground and all the animate and inanimate objects in the surrounding area appear as if immersed in the stream of liquid gold. The Bodhisatta so graceful in this manner, sitting cross-legged on the Invincible Throne at the foot of the Maha Bodhi Tree which may be likened to an umbrella of Indanila precious stones, was reflecting on the Dhamma. (The detail regarding the reflection on the Dhamma by the Bodhisatta will be given afterword.)

The great homage paid by the Devas and Brahmas.

At that time standing in the Tavatimsa Deva world Sakka sounded the Vijayuttara conch which was 120 yojanas long, to summon the Devas and Brahmas. The sound of his conch could be heard from all over the Deva world ten thousand yojanas in width. Even while blowing the conch continuously, Sakka was running fast to reach the Bodhi Tree. (It was not only Sakka of this universe, but all Sakkas of the other ten thousand world-systems also came blowing conches to the presence of the Bodhisatta.)

Maha Brahma came and paid homage by holding the white umbrella which had been left behind on the top of the Cakkavala mountain and covered the Bodhisatta with it from above. (All Maha Brahmas from the other ten thousand world-systems came and stood holding their white umbrellas, touching one another so as to leave no gap between them.)

Suyama, King of Yama abode of Devas also came and stood near the Bodhisatta, paying homage by fanning him with the yak-tail fan which was three gavutas in size. (All the Suyama Devas from the other ten thousand world-systems also came and paid homage, each holding a yak-tail fan, crowding the whole of this world-system.) Santusita, King of Tusita abode of Devas, also came and paid homage by fanning the Bodhisatta with a circular ruby fan three gavutas in size. (All Santusita Devas from the other ten thousand worldsystems also came and paid homage, each holding a circular ruby fan, crowding the whole of this world-system.)

Pancasikha Deva came, carrying the celestial harp, Beluva, accompanied by a group of celestial dancers, and paid homage by dancing, singing and making music. (All the celestial dancers dwelling in the other ten thousand world-systems also came and paid homage by dancing, singing and making music.)

Furthermore, all the male and female deities dwelling in the ten thousand world-systems gathered together in this world-system and paid homage taking their positions in the vicinity, some of them standing and holding a jewelled archway. Others stood around in various groups of their own, some carrying offering made of seven kinds of jewels, some holding golden plantain plants, some holding, mansions of splendour, some holding yak-tails fans, some holding goads (for driving elephants), some holding pairs of carp, some holding primrose flowers, golden circular platforms, bowls filled with water, jars filled with water, conches, fire-stirrers, oil lamp-stands with rubies, golden mirrors, stone-studded mirrors, mirrors with seven jewels, oil lamps finished with rubies, bunting and streamers, and wish-fulfilling trees. All the Devas dwelling in the ten thousand world-systems came, assuming the appearance of celestial dancers, and paid homage dancing celestial dances, singing celestial songs, offering celestial flowers, perfumes and scented powder. At that time, the whole sky was full of cascades of celestial flowers, celestial perfumes as if the whole environment was filled with rain drops and rain water of a heavy downpour.

This tremendous ovation and ceremonious homage was made with such grandeur by all the Devas and Brahmas because they were exulted with the belief' "When this noble Bodhisatta attains Buddhahood, we will certainly get the opportunity to hear the Dhamma from him and thereby receive the immortal Supramundane Dhamma of the Path and Fruition and Nibbana; and we will have delightful satisfaction (piti), by applying our mind to the said nine Supramundane Dhammas (four Paths, four Fruitions and Nibbana). We will also witness all kinds of miracle which will be objects of delight for the eye. The Buddha, by teaching us the Dhamma of Deathlessness will bring about our emancipation and safety from the difficult journey of birth (jati), the difficult journey of ageing (jara), the difficult journey of sickness (vyadhi), the difficult journey of death (marana), and the difficult journey of grief (soka), lamentation (parideva), suffering (dukkha), distress (domanassa) and despair (upayasa)".

Although the Devas and Brahmas paid him homage with great joy and respect, crowding the whole ten thousand world-systems, for the aforesaid reason and although he saw clearly with his own eyes these extraordinary acts of reverence performed in numerous ways, the Bodhisatta had no feeling of attachment and enjoyment at all; and he paid no attention to them all. He dwelt reflecting only on the Dhamma which he relied upon as his support.

The Cakkavala mountain which protected the Bodhisatta who was thus positioned, was like a curtain and the open sky above him with its stars and constellations was like a canopy studded with gold and silver stars. The ten thousand world-systems with its seven planes of happy existences (sugati bhumi), was like a great seven-tiered palace. The high ground of the Bodhi Tree was like a great Audience Hall, the Invincible Throne was like a great Audience Throne and the Maha Bodhi was like a great umbrella finished with precious emeralds -- all inside this seven-tiered palace of the ten thousand world-systems.

While he remained sitting on the Invincible Throne, which resembled a great Audience Throne, on the high ground of the Maha Bodhi Tree, which resembled a great Audience Hall, covered from above by the Maha Bodhi Tree, one hundred cubits high from bottom to top and one hundred cubits in circumference, which resembled a great umbrella decorated with precious emeralds, the Bodhisatta was oblivious of the Devas and Brahmas around him crowding the whole of the ten thousand world-systems and paying homage to him. Since he had been reflecting only on the Dhamma, his diligence (viriya) was undiminished and very keen; his mindfulness (sati) was steadfast and clear, and he was physically and mentally very calm and peaceful. He, therefore, achieved and remained absorbed again in the First Jhana of Rupavacara.

The mind continuum of the Bodhisatta who was thus absorbed in the First Jhana was entirely free from the hindrances (nivaranas) and being detached from sensual objects (vatthu-kana), sensual desires (kilesakama), delightful satisfaction (piti) and happiness (sukha) arose in him profusely.

And again, when the Bodhisatta achieved and remained absorbed in the Second Jhana of Rupavacara, his mind continuum was free of agitation and mental disturbance from thoughts (vitakka and vicara); there was internal purity and clarity and his concentration was uniquely firm. On account of that concentration, his piti and sukha increased.

And again, when the Bodhisatta achieved and remained absorbed in the Third Jhana of Rupavacara, even piti which had manifested itself in his mind continuum disappeared and he dwelt only with the feeling of happiness (sukha vedana). Fully detached even from that feeling of happiness at its height he became imbued with the mental state of equanimity (Tatramajjhattata) or (Jhanupekkha). His mindfulness became pellucid and his insight- wisdom, greatly sharpened.

And again, when the Bodhisatta achieved and remained absorbed in the Fourth Jhana of Rupavacara, since he had already dispelled both physical and mental pain and pleasure from his mind continuum, he dwelt in the state of viewing sensual objects calmly and with equanimity (upekkha, vedana). By virtue of this upekkha vedana and the mental state of Tatramajjhattata, mental concomittants such as mindfulness, etc., which were part and parcel of the Fourth Jhana were pellucid like the light of the moon.

The eight qualities of the Bodhisatta's mind continuum.

If a review is now made of the mind continuum of the Bodhisatta out of devotion, it will be found that, at the time when he was practising dukkaracariya for six years, his mind continuum was exceedingly pure, undefiled by the three wrong thoughts (micchavitakka), namely sensual thought (kamavitakka), malevolent thought (vyapadavitakka), cruel thought, (vihimsa vitakka), so that Mara could not find any opportunity (of censuring him). Again, while he was spending the day in the Sala forest on the Full-moon day of Vesakha, the day he was to attain Buddhahood, his mind continuum was found worthy of veneration, for it was highly purified with the attainment of eight mundane Jhanas. Moreover, when all the Devas and Brahmas from the ten thousand world-systems assembled crowding this universe, and paid him homage while he was sitting on the Invincible Throne after his victory over Deva-putta Mara, he remained oblivious of them, concentrating his attention on the practice of the Dhamma only. And so, as has been said before, the mind continuum of the Bodhisatta, who had once again achieved and remained absorbed in the Fourth Jhana of Rupavacara, (a feat for those of sharp intelligence) had his power of concentration greatly enhanced by the concentration of the Fourth Jhana of Rupavacara as follows:

(1) By virtue of the very pure mental state of the Fourth Jhana (Rupa Jhana cittuppada), the mind continuum was completely pure throughout its entire process.

(2) On account of such purity, it appeared glittering like polished newly refined gold.

(3) Having discarded happiness and joy (sukha somanassa), which is the cause of greed (lobha), and also having discarded sorrow and distress (dukkha domanassa), which is the cause of hatred (dosa), it was free from mental defilements of lobha and dosa.

(4) Freedom from the defilements and taints of the mind leads to freedom from impurities which soil and oppress the mind (upakkilesa).

(5) Being controlled by the fivefold mastery over his mind (vasibhava), and being tamed and trained in fourteen ways, the mind continuum of the Bodhisatta became pliable, gentle so as to be amenable to his wishes like a well-tanned piece of leather or like the well-treated block of lac.

(6) Being soft and tender, like the newly refined, polished pure gold, which was ductile and malleable for easy conversion into desired ornaments, it became amenable to the wishes of the Bodhisatta enabling him to accomplish effectively and easily all kinds of feats such as recollecting, discerning the events of previous existences, or seeing as if with the divine eye distant objects, hidden objects and very fine, microscopic objects.

(7) Having been well developed and trained so as not to become deprived of the aforesaid qualities, the mind continuum remained firmly established in the qualities; or being pliable and malleable for effective accomplishment of anything desired, the mind continuum remained amenable to the wish of the Bodhisatta.

(8) Being thus firmly and securely established, his mind was completely unshaken; or, being established thus, the mind continuum was very strong in respect of faith (saddha), energy (viriya), mindfulness (sati), concentration (samadhi), and the light of wisdom, (panna). There was therefore no shaking of the mind at all which occurs owing to faithlessness, laziness, heedlessness, restlessness, ignorance and gloom arising from mental defilements; in other words, faithlessness, etc., could not make even the slightest inroad into the mind continuum of the Bodhisatta.


(1) The mind continuum of the Bodhisatta was well-established in the concentration of the Fourth Jhana. (2) It was entirely pure being free from the hindrances (nivaranas). (3) Having gone beyond the grosser factors of Jhana (Jhananga) such as, vitakka etc., which agitate and disturb the mind, the mind continuum was shinning pure as if about to glitter. (4) It was free from such defilements as, pride (mana), deception (maya), treachery (satheyya), etc., apt to be generated through attainment of Jhana. (5) It was also free from covetousness (abhijjha), etc., which form the cause of mental defilement (upekkilesa). (6) It was malleable, having gained the fivefold mastery (vasibhavas). (7) Having become the basis of all kinds of supernatural powers (iddhi), it was in a position to accomplish whatever is desired by the Bodhisatta. (8) Having been perfected by mental development (bhavana), his mind continuum remained unshaken and firmly established.

The mind of the Bohdisatta which was thus endowed with these eight attributes finds it easy, needing only an inclination, for realization of the Dhamma which should be realized by means of Abhinna. When the mind was bent towards the object of Abhinna, thought moments on it (Abhinna Javana), arise quite easily.

(1) Attainment of Supernormal Knowledge of Former Existences.
Pubbenivasanussati Abhinna (the first Vijjanana).

The mind continuum endowed with the aforesaid eight attributes and very pure and pellucid being in such a perfect state in which Abhinna Javana arose easily when the mind was inclined to the object of Abhinna, the Bodhisatta inclined it towards supernormal knowledge of former existences (pubbenivasanussati Abhinna), which could recollect past activities, events and experiences. Thereupon, pubbenivasanussati Abhinna arose in him easily. Through that supernormal knowledge, he recollected and saw all past activities, events, and experiences of the past existences going back from the previous life right up to the existence when he was Sumedha the Hermit; he recollected also in backword order many existences and world cycles prior to them, and recollected in foreward order his existences up to that of Setaketu Deva just before the present one.

(This Abhinna was achieved in the first watch of the night. Here, there can be doubt as to how it was possible to know all the happenings and experiences in so many existences with one single thought-moment, (abhinna javana), which arises only once in one thought-process, (vithi). The answer is: Although there arose only one single thought moment, in one thought process ignorance, (moha), which kept the happenings and experiences in those existences hidden was done away with through that thought-moment. All kinds of happenings and experiences of those existences were recollected only thereafter through successive processes of reflection (Paccavekkhana vitthi), which followed the Abhinna vithi.

The noble Bodhisatta who recollected successive existences of the past through Pubbenivasanutssati Vijjanana also acquired supernormal knowledges which could assure him the attainment of supramundane Path and Fruition (Lokuttara Maggaphala) with penetrative insight thus: "There were only the phenomena of mind and matter (nama rupa) throughout the countless rounds of existence; the beginning of which is not known, on all the three occasions of birth, living and death, there were only these two phenomena of nama and rupa. Indeed in all abodes and at all times, the phenomena of nama and rupa are in a continuous state of flux, like the flame of an oil lamp or like the current of a river, and through a succession of cause and effects, it is only the continuum of nama and rupa which fulfils the various functions concerned such as seeing the sight, hearing the sound etc., at the six doors of eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind, thus giving rise to various modes of intimating one's intention (vinnatti) by bodily movement and verbal expression, etc., (In reality) there is no sentient individual at all to be called 'I', 'he', 'man', etc., Indeed, there is not a single Deva, Mara or Brahma who can create such a sentient being.)"

This being the case, the Bodhisatta had through Pubbenivasanussati Nana temporarily put away to a distance (vikkhambhana-pahana) the twenty wrong views of atta (personality-belief); they are the four wrong views of atta relating to the aggregate of corporeality, namely, rupa is atta, atta has rupa; rupa exists in atta, atta exists in rupa and similarly, each set of these four wrong views relating to the remaining aggregates of feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness. In a similar manner, he had also discarded delusion (moha), which had taken place in the distant past.

(2) Attainment of Supernormal Knowledge of Divine Power of Sight, Dibbacakkhu Abhinna (the second Vijja Nana).

After the noble Bodhisatta had realised the Pubbenivasanussati Abhinna in the first watch of that night, he recollected many past events and existences through that Abhinna; and having temporarily put away to a distance the twenty wrong views (sakkayaditthi), together with moha which had taken place in the distant past, he directed his mind continuum, endowed with the aforesaid eight atttributes, towards acquiring Cutupapata Nana, the knowledge of seeing the deaths and births of sentient beings, and towards acquiring Yathakammupaga Nana, knowledge of analysing and seeing the meritorious and demeritorious deeds which form the origins of sentient beings.

(Cutupupata Nana is the same as Dibbacakkhu Nana, because Dibbacakkhu Nana, is also known as Cut'upapata Nana. When Dibbacakkhu Nana is developed, Yathakammupaga Nana and Anagatamsa Nana (knowledge of foreseeing the future) also become developed.)

When the mind was thus inclined to acquire Dibbacakkhu Nana, also called Cutupupata Nana, Dibbacakkhu Abhinna (the second Vijja Nana) arose quite easily. Through that Abhinna, he could see sentient beings on the verge of death, or just after taking conception; those who were low-born or high-born by lineage, caste, etc., those who were beautiful or not beautiful, and attain a happy existence or a miserable existence. In other words, he saw those who were rich and prosperous because of their past deeds of merit based on absence of greed (alobha), and those who were indigent and poverty-stricken because of their past deeds of demerit based on greed (lobha.)

After seeing through Dibbacakkhu Abhinna, the denizens of the woeful states (apaya), suffering misfortune, he reflected, "What kind of deeds have these beings of the apaya done to suffer such awful miseries?". Thereupon, Yathakamm'upaga Abhinna which enabled him to see the deeds of demerit done by these beings arose in him.

Likewise after seeing, through Dibbacakkhu Abhinna, immense happiness enjoyed by sentient beings of the realms of humans, Devas and Brahmas in a progressively higher and better manner, he reflected, "What kind of deeds have these humans, Devas and Brahmas done to enjoy such progressively magnificent bliss in their respective realms?" Thereupon Yathakamm'upaga Abhinna which enabled him to see the deeds of merit done by those beings arose in him.

By means of the Yathakamm'upaga Abhinna, he reviewed in detail the past deeds of merit and demerit done by beings and came to know them as they really were: "These denizens of the apaya world had in their past existences committed evil by deed, word and thought.; they had maligned, abused and reviled the noble individuals (Ariyas); they held wrong views; and with these wrong views they themselves committed and also caused others to commit various demeritorious deeds. After death and dissolution of their bodies, they reappeared in miserable existences (apaya) namely, the realm of continuous suffering (niriya), the realm of animals (tiracchana), the realm of ghosts (peta) and the realm of asuras (asurahya), and "These beings in good existences had performed good deeds bodily, verbally and mentally; they did not malign, abuse or revile the Ariyas; they held right views and with the right views, they performed various kinds of meritorious deeds and they caused others to do so. After death and dissolution of their bodies, they were reborn in the good world of humans, Devas and the twenty realms of the Brahmas".

This Dibbacakkhu Abinna (the second Vijja Nana) was achieved by the noble Bodhisatta at midnight of that day. By virtue of this second Vijja Nana, the mind continuum of the Bodhisatta became devoid of the element of ignorance and delusion (avijjamoha dhatu) which was apt to keep hidden the passing away and arising of sentient beings. Then with Yathakammupaga Abhinna which has Dibbacakkhu Abhinna as its basis, he was able to review and became enlightened as to the true facts of the past deeds by sentient beings; and having done away with sixteen kinds of doubt2. kankha, the Bodhisatta attained the stage of purity by the removal of doubt, Kankha vitarana Visuddhi.

(3) Attainment of Knowledge of Extinction of Moral Intoxicants, Asavakkhaya Nana (the third Vijja nana) and becoming a Buddha.

(It is intended to treat both in brief as well as in fuller details the Asavakkhaya Nana complete with note worthy particulars and important remarks.)


The noble Bodhisatta attained the Arahattamagga Nana also called Asavakkhaya Nana in the last watch of the night realising thereby Sabbannuta nana. Omniscience Then, to become a Buddha among humans, Devas and Brahmas, he inclined his mind continuum, endowed as it was with. the aforesaid eight attributes, to attain Arahattamagga Nana; then letting it dwell on the Doctrine of Dependent Origination (Paticcasamuppada) which is made up of twelve factors, namely, avijja, sankhara, vinnana, nama rupa, salayatana, phassa, vedana, tanha, upadana, bhava, jati, jara, marana. Going over this Doctrine of Dependent Origination in foreward and reverse order repeatedly, he attained the Noble Path, Ariya Magga, which is also known as Yathabhuta Nanadassana. (This is the brief treatment.)


This knowledge of the Four Paths, Magganana, also called Yathabhutananadassana, did not appear in the mind continuum of such individuals as Sakka and Brahma who were very mighty in the world and the noble hermits Kaladevila and Narada who were highly accomplished in Jhana attainments and Abhinna. So, it may be asked: Why did this knowledge of the four Paths which was so subtle and profound, which was not even dreamed of throughout the beginningless samsara and never realised before, appear in the mind continuum of the Bodhisatta who had no teacher and who had entered the ascetic life by his own volition? The answer is:

Greatness of the Paramis.

The noble Bodhisatta had, during the period spanning four Asankhyeyya and one hundred thousand world aeons, passing through existences so numerous that they could not be counted in hundreds, thousands and hundred thousands, accumulated meritorious deeds of Dana Paramis, performed on the basis of the four modes of development (as explained in the Chapter on Miscellany) even to the extent of risking his own life. And in every existence, he had conducted himself to completely eradicate or lessen the defilement of greed that arose when ever he gave attention to this or that object; so this led him to reach the stage at which others started remarking," Is it that there is no defilement of greed in the mind continuum of this noble person?"

Similarly, by virtue of Sila Parami, Khanti Parami and Metta Parami, developed through the whole period of four Asankhyeyya and ten thousand aeons he prevented the arising of anger (kodha), and fault (dosa), and by pouring the cool water of Metta over a long period of time, he had extinguished the fire of kodha and also done away with its company of jealousy (issa), stinginess (macchariya) and remorse (kukkucca).

By means of Panna Parami, well developed and accumulated throughout the many existences and world cycles, he had dispelled the element of darkness which is delusion (moha). He had also discarded wrong views; he was therefore a great man of very pure wisdom. He had also approached all the Buddhas, Paccekabuddhas, and noble Disciples as well as other learned individuals he happened to encounter and asked them such questions as, "Which Dhamma is faulty; and which Dhamma is faultless? Which Dhamma is black and dirty; and which Dhamma is white and pure?" Because of such enquiries, he had [ 255 ] eliminated doubts in matters of Dhamma and had progressed in wisdom existence after existence.

In the house of his relatives, he showed respect to those older than himself, such as mother and father, maternal uncles, etc., by bowing, by adoring, by honouring, by offering seats, by rising from the place in advance, by extending welcome to them; he also showed respect to learned persons of virtuous conduct. He had thereby removed conceit, (mana) and distraction (uddhacca) and become free from arrogance, like a snake with broken fangs, or a bull with broken horns, or a rope coil used as a foot-scraper; he was in the habit of praising the virtues of forebearance, the virtue of wishing for the welfare of others, and the virtue of the virtues of being helpful to others with compassion.

By renouncing the world the Bodhisatta had abandoned the luxuries of his domain and kingship, and become a recluse. After achieving Jhana attainments in the forest, he discarded the five hindrances and did away with sensuality (kamaraga), and delight in womenfolk (itthirati) whenever they appeared in each and every existence. With the Perfection of Truthfulness, he also abstained from false speech (micchavaca) which tends to mislead the world; with the Perfection of Energy, he also removed displeasure (arati) in and indolence (kosajja), in Concentration and Insight Meditations which are practices of extraordinary merit, by keeping his mind continuously active and diligent in performing meritorious deeds. In the aforesaid manner, he had endeavoured to make his mind continuum purer and purer one existence after another.

The noble Bodhisatta who had thus removed the moral defilements (kilesa), by means of the accumulated merit accruing from meritorious deeds of Perfection such as Dana, etc.,, had to go through, even in a single existence, the process of repeated purification: the defilements which he had removed would reappear soon; he would then remove them away only to find them making their appearance again (since they had not yet been completely eradicated (samuccheda pahana) by means of the Path Knowledge (Magga Nana.); the Bodhisatta, however, would not concede defeat and would not give up but put them away temporarily to a distance (tadanga pahana and vikkhaÑbhana pahana) by means of great deeds of merit (Mahakusala) and supernormal deeds of merit (Mahaggata kusala)*

In this manner, through out the period of four asankhyeyya and ten thousand world cycles, he had eradicated the aggregates of impurities defiling his mind, and also eliminated ignorance and delusion (avijjamoha) which act as general of the army leading the hordes of defilements, (kilesa), accompanying him. At the same time he made the five Faculties, namely, Faith, Energy, Mindfulness, Concentration and Wisdom, grow stronger existence after existence. Thus he had travelled through the difficult journey of (samsara), continuously engaged in developing and fulfiling the Paramis with fiery zeal, till the time arrived when as King Vessantara, he gave away his Queen Maddi in charity as the final act of merit which would enable him to attain Buddhahood. Thereafter, he spent his life in the Tusita Deva world, enjoying the celestial pleasures and awaiting the time when he would become a Buddha.

Since he was one who had thus reached the pinnacle of wisdom having done away with the factors of defilements such as greed, hatred etc., by means of accumulated merits of Parami such as Dana, etc., the Fourfold Knowledge of the Path (Magga Nana) which are very deep and subtle arose (unaided) only in the mind continuum of the Bodhisatta.

Furthermore, beginning from the time when he prostrated himself at the feet of Dipankara Buddha, he had endeavoured to develop and accumulate merit through fulfilment of Paramis such as Dana etc., which are difficult of accomplishment by ordinary men., without making any wish for the pleasures of any realm of existence whatsoever as the fruits of his meritorious deeds. For all the deeds of merit such as Dana, etc., performed by him, the Bodhisatta made only this wish: "Let the accumulated merits of these deeds become sufficing conditions (upanissaya paccaya) for the arising in me of Omniscience, Sabbannuta Nana." [

As for others, they pray for the pleasures of Devas and humans after performing deeds of merit; and in accordance with their wishes, they gain the pleasures of the Devas and human worlds as the fruits of their good deeds. It is like spending and squandering whatsoever wealth of merit they have accumulated from their 'good deeds, Unlike these people, the Bodhisatta, after the manner of one who fills his granary with paddy and always keeps guard over it without making use of it, properly store up the merit acquired from every performance of his good deeds, wishing thus: "Let this deed be the sufficing condition only for the realisation of Magga Nana, with Sabannutta nana" as its pinnacle. Such being the case, the accumulation of merits from the Perfections and good deeds over the long period of four asankhyeyya and a hundred thousand world aeons found an occassion to bear fruits of which the attainment of Buddhahood was the greatest in this last existence as Siddhattha. But as there were countless merit to come to fruition all in one existence, that very existence appeared congested with fruit-bearing merits.

By virtue of the aspiration solely for the achievement of Buddhahood, the merits of his good deeds that would come to fruition in a great rush in this one last existence were very powerful; consequently, it was only in the mind continuum of the noble Bodhisatta that the knowledge of the Four Paths which is so subtle and deep arose unaided. (In this chapter on the attainment of Buddhahood, numerous excerpts that would give devotional inspiration are taken from the Jinalankara).

* . The following notes based on the Vipassana Dipani of Ledi Sayadaw is provided here for further elucidation of this paragraph: Moral defilements arise in common worldlings in three stages: vitikkamabh|mi at which the defilements are very active and violent producing evil deeds and words. The defilements of this stage can be got rid of or put away by meritorious deeds of the perfection sila but only temporarily. Therefore, the putting away by Sila etc., is called Tadangapahana which means temporary puffing away. The defilements at the next stage, Pariyutthanabhumi comes into existences as mental 'properties at the mind door when any object which has power to wake them up produces perturbances at one of the six doors. The defilements which appear thus can be subdued only by the cultivation of Jhana through practice of Concentration. The putting away of defilements by Samadhi is called Vikkhambhanapahana, which means putting away to a distance. Here again, Jhana can dispose of the defilements only for a considerable time so that they do not rise again. But there still remain the defilements of the third stage, anusayabh|mi, which do not come into existence as mental properties but lie latent surrounding the life -continuum. They cannot be removed by Sila and Samadhi and are left undispelled by them. Only the knowledge of the Pali, Magga Nana attained by development of Insight Meditation which produces Insight knowledge, Panna, can get rid of these defilements leaving nothing behind. This putting away of defilements by means of Panna so that they will never rise again is called samucchedapahana. Here, fulfilment of Paramis and practice of Sila which put away the defilements temporarily (tadangapahana) come under the great deeds of merit, Mahakusala; practice of Concentration Meditation to develop Samatha, which puts away defilements to a distance is regarded as supernormal deeds of merit, Mahaggata kusala. Practice of Insight Meditation to produce Panna, the Path Knowledge, Magga Nana, which completely eradicates the defilements, Samuccheda pahana, is supramundane deed of merit, Lokuttara kusala.

The Development of 3,600,000 crores of Mahavajira Vipassana Nana by the Boddhisatta

Having done away with factors of defilements such as lobha, dosa, etc., by means of the merits accumulated through fulfilment of Paramis such as Dana, etc., as aforesaid, the Bodhisatta who had also eliminated moha, general of the defilements together with its concomitants, which is apt to hinder and conceal the way to Nibbana, practised and developed Mahavajira Vipassana meditation at dawn (in the last watch of the night) on the Full-moon of Vesakha. The method of practice, and development in brief, is as follows:

There are a hundred thousand crores of world-systems known as anakhetta, the field of Authority of a Buddha *. When the Bodhisatta contemplated the true nature of those beings living in each universe and belonging to the three passages of time (past, present and future), he came to know full well that, no matter how numerous humans, Devas and Brahmas were in a single universe, they could be reduced to twelve factors of Paticcasamuppada, the Doctrine of Dependent Origination, as the ultimate reality: avijja and sankhara (past factors as cause); vinnana, namarupa, salayatana, phassa, vedana (present factors as effect); tanha, upadana and kammabhava (present factors as cause) and jati (otherwise known as upapatti-bhava), jara and marana (future factors as effect).

( *The field of Authority of a Buddha: There are three fields (khettas) concerning a Buddha according to Jinalankara Tika and Parajika Commentary. 1. Jati khetta, the field of birth limited by the ten thousand world systems that quaked on the Perfect one's taking re-birth linking. 2. The field of Authority, Anakhetta, limited by the hundred thousand crores of world systems where the following safeguards, (parittas) are efficacious: Ratana Sutta, the Khandha Paritta, the Dhajagga Paritta, the Atanatiya Paritta and the Mora Paritta. 3. The field of scope, visaya khetta, is boundless and immeasurable in which the Buddha ©ana can exercise his Sabbnnuta ©ana, knowing anything anywhere that the wishes.)

When he contemplated the true nature of humans, Devas and Brahmas living in the remaining world-systems and belonging to the three passages of time, he came to know full well that as in the case of the beings of this universe the same twelve factors of Paticcasamuppada form objects of Vipassana meditation ranging from avijja to jati, jara and marana.

Summing up the number of the objects of Vipassana meditation, as there are a hundred thousand crores of world systems, there are also a hundred thousand crores each of the twelve factors. The total number of these objects will then become one million and two hundred thousand crores.

Like a man who cut and cleared a thick, jungle with tangling bushes and undergrowths, sharpened his sword again and again on the whetstone, the Bodhisatta also, in order to clear away the thick jungle and bushes of defilements (kilesa) numbering one thousand five hundred, repeatedly sharpened the sword blade of Mahavajira Insight Knowledge (Mahavajira Vipasana Nana), his personal weapon, on the whetstone of Anapana Fourth Jhana attainment (i.e., repeatedly getting absorbed in the Anapana Fourth Jhana), after which he contemplated each of the Factors of Dependent Origination, numbering one million two hundred thousand crores by reflecting on their characteristics of impermanence (Anicca Lakkhana), unsatisfactoriness, (Dukkha Lakkhana) and insubstantiality (Anatta Lakkhana).

As each of the factors of Paticcasamuppada numbering one million two hundred thousand crores promotes three Insight Nanas namely, Insight Knowledge of Impermanence, Anicca Vipassana Nana; Insight Knowledge of Unsatisfactoriness (Dukkha Vipassana Nana) and Insight Knowledge of Insubstantiality, (Anatta Vipassana Nana), there arose altogether three million six hundred thousand crores of Mahavajira Insight Wisdom.

(A brief account of the Mahavajira Insight Wisdom is contained in the exposition of Anupada Sutta, Uparipannasa Tika and in the exposition of Sariputta Moggalana Pabbajjakathi, Mahakhandhaka, Vinaya Saratthadipani Tika).

It is the usual practice of every Bodhisatta on the eve of his attainment of Buddhahood to reflect on the Doctrine of Dependent Origination in forward and backward orders. Our Bodhisatta also, like the previous Bodhisatta reflected on the Doctrine of Dependent Origination in both orders. Thereupon all the ten thousand world systems that form the Field of Birth, (Jati khetta), quaked the effect of which reaching to the limit of the bordering oceans.

After the Bodhisatta had cultivated, as has been said above Sammasana Nana of three million six hundred thousand crores of Mahavajira Insight Wisdom by reflecting on the twelve Factors of the Doctrine of Dependent Origination as was usual for all the Bodhisattas, he again entered upon the Anapana Fourth Jhana. (He did so in order to sharpen the sword blade of the higher Insight knowledge Vipassana Nana such as the knowledge of arising and passing, Udayabbaya Nana * on the whetstone of the Anapana Fourth Jhana). Having thus entered upon the Anapana Fourth Jhana (having sharpened the sword blade of the Higher Insight Knowledge) he rose from it and realised at ease the higher Vipassana knowledge such as Udayabbaya Nana.

* Udayabbaya Nana: knowledge of arising and passing away of conditioned things; Bhanga Nana: knowledge of dissolution of conditioned things; Bhaya Nana: knowledge of fear of conditioned things; Œdinava Nana: knowledge of disgust and dread of conditioned of things; Nibbida Nana. knowledge of weariness of conditioned of things; Muccitukamyata Nana: knowledge of longing to escape; Patisankha Nana: knowledge of special effort; Saakharupekkha Nana: knowledge of detachment from conditioned existence.

(It should be noted and accepted here that the Bodhisatta realized higher Vipassana Nana with ease because: as he had entered the Order of Bhikkhu in the presence of past Buddhas and learnt the three Pitakas and practised Vipassana meditation he cultivated and developed even to the extent of attaining Udayabbaya Nana, Bhanga Nana, Bhaya Nana, Adinava Nana, Nibbida Nana, Muccitukamyata Nana, Patisankha Nana, Sankharupekkha Nana. And also because, his Insight Knowledge had developed and grown immensely by virtue of the aforesaid three million six hundred thousand crores of Mahavajira Vipassana Sammasana Nana. Based on the Jinalankara Tika and Sutta Mahavagga Tika.)

Just as a man on reaching the eaves of his house after taking a long journey did not halt at all at the threshold but went straight into the house on finding the door wide open, so the noble Bodhisatta having realized higher and higher Vipassana Nana with ease by successively passing through the series of eight stages of Nana such as Udayabbaya Nana, etc., finally reached the last stage which was the knowledge of conformity, Anuloma Nana, did not make a halt there. Instead of halting at Saccanuloma Nana which is like the gate way (to the city of Nibbana), he immediately proceeded to clear away the clouds and darkness of ignorance and delusion, (avijjamoha), which conceal the four Truths, namely, the Truth of Suffering (Dukkha Sacca), the Truth of Origin of Suffering (Samudaya Sacca), the Truth of Cessation of Suffering (Nirodha Sacca), and the Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of suffering (Magga Sacca) by means of three kinds of conformity to the function of Truth (Saccanuloma Nana), namely, preliminary impulsion (parikamma), access impulsion (upacccara), and conformity, (anuloma) which are included in the mind-process, magga vithi.*

*For better comprehension of the entire paragraph, vide Chapter XXI § 129 ff and chapter XXII § 3,4 of The Path of Purification. Nanamoli. 3rd Edn. B.P.S, Kandy.

Having thus dispelled the thick murk that hides the truth, he clearly saw as one did the moon clearly in the cloudless sky; and realized the Great Light of Nibbana through the Knowledge of the First Path Sotapatti magga Nana which immediately follows Gotrabu Nana the Knowledge of overcoming of worldly ties and changing over to noble lineage. (The thought moment of Sotapatti magga Nana appeared once and ceased; this is immediately followed by the appearance and cessation three times of Javana, impulsion of Sotapatti phala which is the effect of the said Sotapatti magga, in accordance with the attribute of the Dhamma known as Akalika (Immediate Fruition). Then follows the flow of bhavanga citta).

Because the Sotapatti-magga, had been attained thus, the mind continuum of the Bodhisatta was completely rid of the three defilements, namely sakkaya ditthi* Vicikiccha** and Silabbataparamasa***. These defilements would never rise again in the Bodhisatta's mind continuum.

* Sakkaya ditthi: belief in the illusion that there is Self, Soul;

** Vicikiccha- doubt or wavering of mind about 1. the Buddha; 2. the Dhamma; 3. the Sangha; 4. the disciplinary rules (sikkha); 5. the past; 6. the future; 7. both past and future; 8. Dependent Origination (Paticcasamuppada.)

*** Silabbataparamasa--Adherence to wrongful rites and ceremonies; the misleading belief that there are paths other than the Ariya Path of Eight Constituents that can liberate one from dukkha.

The Attainment of Buddhahood by realizing the higher Paths and Fruitions.

After realizing Sotapatti-magga and Phalas, the Bodhisatta, reviewed (1) the Sotapatti- magga, (2) the Sotapatti-phala which was the result of the Sotapatti-magga, (3) Nibbana which was their object, (4) the defilements destroyed by means of the Sotapatti-magga and (5) the defilement not destroyed yet by means of the said magga. (This five-fold reflective knowledge is known as five-fold Paccavakkhana Nana.)

Having thus reviewed on the Sotapatti-magga, and Sotapatti-phala, their objects Nibbana, the defilements which had been eradicated by the Path and the defilements which yet remained to be eradicated through the fivefold reflective knowledge, the Bodhisatta again cultivated and developed the series of Insight Knowledge (Vipassana Nana) such as Udayabbaya Nana, etc., Soon he realized the second stage of Sakadagami-magga and Sakadagami-phala. By Sakadagami-magga he uprooted the grosser defilements, namely, sense-desires (kama-raga) and ill will (vyapada or dosa). Henceforth, the mind continuum of the Bodhisatta had become completely rid of the latent elements of the grosser defilements of kama-raga and vyappada (dosa) (the way seeds were burnt up in fire.)

Having realized the Sakadagami-magga and phala, the Bodhisatta with the occurrence in him of impulsive thought moments (javanavara) of the fivefold reflective knowledge paccavakkhana Nana contemplated the Sakadagami-magga, and anagami-phala, their objects Nibbana, defilements so far already destroyed and the remaining defilements. Again he developed the series of Vipassana Nana such as Udayabhaya Nana, etc., Soon he realized the third stage of Anagami-magga and Anagami-phala.

By the Anagami-magga he completely discarded the subtle defilements of kama-raga kilesa and vyapada (dosa). Henceforth, the mind-continuum of the Bodhisatta had become completely divested of the tendencies of the past lingering in the mind (vasana) as well as the latent elements of the subtle defilements, kama-raga and vyapada (dosa).

Having realized the Anagami-magga and Phala, the Bodhisatta with the occurrence in him of (javanavara) of the five reflective knowledges (Paccavekkhana Nana) contemplated the Anagami-magga and Anagami-Phala, their object Nibbana, defilements destroyed, and on the remaining defilements. Again he developed the series of Vipassana Nana such as the Udayabbaya Nana, etc., Soon he realized the fourth stage of Arahatta-magga and Arahatta-phala. By the Arahatta-magga, the Bodhisatta completely uprooted all the remaining defilements, namely, craving for existence in the material realm (ruparaga), craving for existence in the immaterial realm (aruparaga), pride (mana), restlessness (uddhacca), ignorance (avijja), without leaving the slightest trace of the tendencies of the past. Henceforward, the mind continuum of the Bodhisatta had become entirely rid of the one thousand and five hundred categories of kilesa together with tendensies of the past (vasana) and seven kinds of latent elements.

(Having realized this Arahatta-magga and Arahatta-phala, there occurred impulsive thought moments (javanavara) of reflective knowledges (Paccavekkhana) which reflected on the Arahatta-magga and Arahatta-phala, their object Nibbana, and the defilements which had been eradicated. There are altogether nineteen Reflective knowledges, namely, five each arising after the attainments of Sotapatti magga phala, Sakadagami-magga Phala, Anagami-magga phala and four arising after the attainment of Arahatta Magga Phala. These nineteen knowledges of reflection are also known as Vimutti Nana Dassana attributes. After attainment of Arahatta Magga, there was no defilements remaining and hence there was no reflection of it; therefore there are only four Paccavakkhana Nana after the attainment of Arahatta Magga Phala.)

Attainment of Buddhahood amongst the three worlds of sentient beings

When the Bodhisatta realised Arahatta-phala immediately after the realisation of Arahatta-magga, his mind continuum was very clear and he attained the state of a Perfectly Self-Enlightened One, (Sammasambuddha), the Supreme Head of the three worlds, by gaining Omniscience, (Sabbannuta Nana) along with the Four Noble Truths, the Four Analytical Knowledges (Patisambhida Nana), the sixfold Unique Wisdom (Assadharana Nana), making up the Fourteenfold Wisdom of a Buddha, and the eighteen special qualities (Avenika Dhamma) and the fourfold Valorous Wisdom (Vesarajja Nana). Simultaneously with the attainment of Sabbanuta Nana, came the dawn. (Realisation of Sabbannuta Nana means the attainment of Buddhahood).

The Seven Purifications of a Buddha.

In this connection, we propose to insert in this chronicle an account of the seven purifications of a Buddha (visuddhi) for brief information.

(1) Purity of Morality, (Sila Visuddhi)

At the time the Bodhisatta halted on the banks of the River Anoma and put on the robes of a recluse, he began to observe the moral restraint from evil conduct (Samvara Sila)*. The Samvara Sila is the eight precepts with right livelihood as the eighth (Ajivatthamaka Sila): to wit, abstinence from taking life; abstinence from stealing, or robbing things not given in deed or in word by owner; abstinence from sexual misconduct (abstinence from improper sexual acts whether major or minor), abstinence from telling lies, abstinence from slanderous talks; abstinence from using harsh and abusive language; abstinence from frivolous, unbeneficial talks; abstinence from wrong livelihood. With the observance of this sila, the Bodhisatta also accomplished the observance of the purity of livelihood (Ajiva parisuddhi sila).

* Samvara Sila: The Practice of Sila varies in accordance with the mode of life adopted by the disciple, whether a bhikkhu or a lay person. Suttas in the Nikayas give extensive explanations of the practice of Sila, the type of moral training which necessarily precedes meditation. The Visuddhimagga explains the moral training in general under four heads: (1) Patimokkha-samvara, the Patimokkha restraint, (2) Indriya-samvara, restraint of the senses, (3) Ajivaparisuddhi, Purity of Livelihood, (4) Paccayasannissita, Purity in regard to the requisites. Patimokkha-samvara is meant for observance by the bhikkhu disciples of the Buddha; hence it is not mentioned in this account of the purity of the Bodhisatta's morality.

Indriya Samvara Sila is the practice of securely guarding the six doors of the senses. Unlike the ordinary worldling the Buddha required no special effort to develop anew Indriya Samvara Sila since restraint of the senses (Indriya), was for him already an innate and accomplished fact.

It was also not necessary for him to especially exert for observance of moral conduct in respect of requisites (Paccayasannissita Sila) to keep away the defilements which may arise because of the Four Requisites.

Even at the time when he was about to renounce the world, he had already discarded temporarily a number of unwholesome defilements headed by greed and craving. The latent defilements are eradicated only by the Arahatta-magga. This, was the the Bodhisatta's purity of morality (Sila visuddhi).

(2) Purity of mind (Citta visuddhi)

The eight attainments of Jhana and the five mundane psychic powers, (abhinna), acquired during his stay with the Sect Leaders Alara and Udaka had turned unclean and dim as if stained with impurities (like unused large gold vessels) through neglect of practice and development throughout his six years' asceticism of dukkaracarriya. On the day he was to attain Buddhahood he partook of the Ghana milk-rice offered by lady Sujata and spent the daytime in the sala forest. While he was so staying there, he purified the eight attainments and the five abhinnas by developing them once again (like washing and cleaning the stained gold vessel). These eight attainments and five abhinnas constituted the Bodhisatta's purity of mind, (Citta visuddhi).

(3) Purity of views (Ditthi Visuddhi)

Thereafter, the noble Bodhisatta proceeded to the High ground of Maha Bodhi in the evening and remained seated on the Invincible Throne. He vanquished Devaputta Mara before sunset; in the first watch of the night, he developed the knowledge of past existences. As has been described above, he perceived well the phenomena of nama and rupa and, destroyed the twenty wrong beliefs-in-personality (sakkaya ditthi). This was the Bodhisatta's purity of views (Ditthi Visuddhi).

(4) Purity of overcoming doubts (Kankhavitarana Visuddhi) Then in the middle watch of the night, he discerned sentient beings reaching different destinations according to their deeds by means of Yathakammupaga nana which had Dibbacakkhu nana as its basis. On seeing them, he realised distinctly the law of Kamma (deeds and their results) and because of this realisation, he became free of doubts. This was the Bodhisatta's purity of overcoming doubts (Kankhavitarana Visuddhi).

(5) Purity of knowledge and insight into the right and wrong paths (Maggamaggananadassana Visuddhi)**

In the last watch of the night, the Bodhisatta dwelt on the twelve factors of the Doctrine of Dependent Origination; and beginning with the contemplation of mind and body (Kalapa-sammasana) on the basis of seven contemplations such as contemplation of impermanence (anicca nupassana), of suffering (dukkha nupassana), of non-self (anatta nupassana), he realised Udayabbaya Nana which discerned the rising and falling of all mental and material phenomena, nama and rupa. At that time there arose in the Bodhisatta defilements of Vipassana, (Vipassanupakkilesa) such as illumination, etc.

** Maggamaggananadassana Visuddhi: Knowledge as to whether it is the right path leading to Nibbana or not is called Maggamaggananadassana Visuddhi.

*** Vipassun'upakkilesa: defilements of vipassana

A yogi practising Vipassana meditation, at a certain stage of advancement, contemplates again and again the rising and falling of all mental and physical phenomena and attains the initial stage of the knowledge of arising and falling (Udayyabbaya Nana). "At this stage, he generally beholds a supernormal light (obhasa), feels a thrill of zest (piti), calmness (passaddhi), determination (adhimokkha), great energy (paggaha), happiness (sukha), deep insight (nana), intensity of mindfulness (upatthana), equanimity (upekkha), and a mild desire for this state (nikanti)". (From Essential Themes of Buddhist Lectures given by Ashin Thittila. Department of Religious Affairs, Yangon, Myanma, 1992.)

These states arising in a yogi at the stage of Udayabbaya Nana in ten phases are termed 'Vipassanupakkilesa, defilements of kilesa. Nanamoli, in The Path of Purification translates it as imperfections of Insight and enumerates them, ten in number, as follows: (1) Illumination, (2) knowledge, (3) rapturous happiness, (4) tranquility, (5) bliss (pleasure), (6) resolution, (7) exertion, (8) assurance, (9) equanimity and (10) attachment.

"The yogi, arriving at this stage, is liable to these defilements and his mind may be seized by 'spiritual excitement' or 'agitation about higher states' (dhamma-uddhacca). 'For example, he may, on having an illumination, feel that this constitutes Path-experience and so inhibits his further progress through deceiving himself. When an illumination appears the meditator thinks: 'Never indeed has such illumination as this arisen in me before. Surely, I have reached the Path; I have reached the Fruition. Thus he takes which is not the Path for the Path, and that which is not the Fruition for the Fruition. Through this mistake, the progress of Vipassana is checked; leaving the original subject of meditation, he lingers, delighting in the illumination." (Buddhist Meditation in theory and practice by Vijiranana Maha Thera. --Buddhist Missionary Society, Malaysia. 1975.)

The illumination of the Buddha unlike that of others, was not confined to one spot, one area, or one portion of a region. In fact, when the Bodhisatta's, by means of the very sharp, penetrating afore said Mahavajjra Vipassana Nana, contemplated the aggregates of phenomena (Dhamma) in the mind continuum of himself as well as that of the inestimable number of sentient beings, through out the three passages of time, in a summary manner, reducing them into twelve factors of Paticcasamuppada; and again dividing these twelve factors into two groups of nama and rupa when he contemplated them by means of Udayabbaya Nana, his energy was very strong, his mindfulness very steadfast; this mind very composed; and so his insightwisdom was very sharp; his faith very strong, his physical and mental happiness, and tranquillity were developing incessantly. The mental factors of equanimity (Tataramajjhatta cetasika) also called vipassanupekkha, which views with even-mindedness all conditioned states, was .also very strong. The mind continuum of the Bodhisatta, thus supported and assisted by happiness, (sukha) and tranquillity, (passaddhi) was suffused with five kinds of zest, namely, (1) joy that makes hairs stand on end (khuddaka piti)., (2) joy that occurs off and on like a flash of lightning (khanika piti), (3) joy flooding the body and then receding like waves breaking on the sea shore (Okkantika piti), (4) joy so strong as to transport one up into the air (Ubbega piti), (5) joy that pervades the whole body as soft cotton wool soaked in oil. His blood, heart and sense faculties such as eye, ear, nose etc., were also very lucid.

Therefore, illumination appeared from the person of the Bodhisatta flooding the earth, the mass of air and the mass of water of the nether region and making them golden yellow; it then plunged into the boundless space below. In the upward direction also, up to the highest abode of beings, Bhavagga, everything was turned golden yellow by the illumination which continued to penetrate further into the upper boundless space. The illumination also brightened up across the whole of the ten thousand world-systems, and rapidly extended throughout the infinite world systems.

(When such defilements of Vipassana appear, unclever meditators mistook them for the Path and the Fruition; they abandoned the original subject of meditation and dwelt taking delight in defiling elements). When, however, these defilements of Vipassana appeared in the mind continuum of the Bodhisatta, he reflected: "These are not the Path which will lead to Arahatta magga Nana and Sabbannuta Nana; they merely defile Vipassana. Only Udayabhaya Nana etc., of my original meditation form the true path to Arahattamagga; Nana and Sabbannuta Nana." He did not allow his mind to hover over these defilements of vipassana and to become attached to them; he let it remain inclined to the object of Vipassana meditation.

When thus the defiling elements of Vipassana appeared in the Bodhisatta's mind continuum as in the case of others, he did not allow subtle craving and greed known as nikanti that longed for those defiling elements to rise. He had the lucid, extraordinary knowledge, Nana, which discerned clearly that this group of defiling elements was not the proper Path to Enlightenment; it just led to the defilement of Vipassana. Only Udayabbaya Nana etc., form the right path leading to Enlightenment. This was the Bodhisatta's purity of the knowledge and insight into the right and wrong path, (Maggamaggananadassana Visuddhi).

(6) Purity of Knowledge and Insight of the Path, Patipadananadassna visuddhi and (7) Purity of Knowledge and Insight, (Nanadassana visuddhi).

The set of nine knowledges of Insight*, (Vipassana Nana), beginning with Udayabbaya Nana and ending with Anuloma Nana which arise in the mind continuum of the Bodhisatta is known as Purity of Knowledge and Insight of the Path. The Four Noble Paths, (Ariya Magga) are known as the Purity of Knowledge and Insight, Nanadasana Visuddhi.

*. Nine Knowledges of Insight: According to Visuddhimagga, they are "(1) Knowledge of contemplation of Rise and Fall, Udayavayanupassana Nana which is free from imperfection and steady on its course, (2) Knowledge of contemplation of Dissolution, Bhanganupassana Nana; (3) Knowledge of appearance as terror, Bhayanupassana Nana; (4) Knowledge of contemplation of danger, Adinavanupassana Nana; (5) Knowledge of contemplation of dispassion, Nibbidanupassana Nana; (6) Knowledge of desire for deliverance, Muncitukamyata Nana; (7) Knowledge of contemplation of reflection, Patisankhanupassana Nana; (8) Knowledge of equanimity about formations, Sankharupekkha Nana and (9) Knowledge in Conformity with Truth, Anuloma Nana For further elucidation, see Chapter XXI of The Path of Purification by Bhikkhu Nanamoli.)

(In this connection, it should especially be noted that: Sotapattimagga attained by the Buddha was the first Jhanamagga with the five factors of Initial application (vitakka), sustained application (vicara), joy (piti), happiness (sukha), and one-pointedness (ekaggata). Sakadagamimagga was the second Jhana Magga with the three factors of piti, sukha, and ekaggata. Anagami magga was the third Jhana magga with the two factors of sukha and ekaggata. Arahattamagga was the fourth Jhana magga with the two factors of upekkha and ekaggata. From the exposition of the Upakkilesa Sutta in the Uparipannasa Atthakatha.)

In this manner, the series of the seven Purities, described above, constitute the right and proper way to Nibbana. The Buddhas, Paccekabuddhas, and noble Disciples, of the past, present and future, realise Nibbana only through the series of these seven Purities; and to say the least, so do the noble individuals who attain the noble Path by developing at least tacapancaka meditation** or by hearing a Dhamma Discourse in verse delivered by a Buddha through a projection of his image whilst remaining at the monastery. They all attain the Noble Path, Ariya Magga only going through these seven Purities successively.

**. Tacapancaka meditation: meditation on the first five features of the body with skin (taca) as the fifth, the other four being hair on the head (kesa), hair on the body (loma), nail (nakha) and teeth (danta). It is part of the mindfulness meditation of the body (kayagatasati Bhavana).

A question may be raised thus: If all the Buddhas, Paccekabuddhas and Disciples of the three passages of time realise Nibbana only through the series of the seven Purities, should not all these noble persons be alike in every respect? Why should there be such differences as: He was a Buddha, he was a Paccekabuddha, he was a Chief Disciple (Aggasavaka), he was a great Disciple, (Mahasavaka), he was an ordinary Disciple (pakatisavaka)?

The answer is: Although Nibbana is realised by all the Buddhas, Paccekabuddhas and Noble Disciples only through the series of the seven Purities, they are originally different in wisdom (panna) in practice (patipada) in faith (saddha) and in inherent disposition (ajjhasaya dhatu).

Therefore, the noble individual who realise Arahatta phala through knowledge acquired by hearing the Dhamma from others (Sutamaya Nana) after having developed the Paramis according to the strength of his saddha and panna, throughout a period one hundred thousand world cycles, or more, or less, are designated Pakatisavakas and Mahasavakas.

The noble individuals who realise Arahatta phala through Sutamaya Nana after having developed the Paramis throughout a period of one Asankhyeyya and one hundred thousand world cycles, or slightly less, are designated Aggasavakas.

The noble individuals who realise Arahatta phala through knowledge independently acquired (without being taught by others but by (Sayambhu Nana) after having developed the Paramis throughout a period of two asankhyeyya and one hundred thousand world cycles but are incapable of teaching others the Dhamma in order to enable them to attain Magga and Phala and Nibbana are designated Paccekabuddhas.

The noble peerless individuals who after valiantly fulfilling their Paramis for (the minimum period of) four asankhyeyya and one hundred thousand world cycles and performing the five Great Sacrifices, which are not the concern of Pacceka Bodhisattas and Savaka Bodhisattas, attain Arahatta phala pinnacled by Sabbannuta Nana by means of Sayambhu Nana; superbly skilled in the use of words they give Dhamma discourse with Four Profundities namely, profundity of deep and subtle text (Pali), profundity of meaning, profundity of the teaching, and profundity of the penetrating wisdom; they do so in many ways to suit the inherent dispositions of sentient beings; they are able to convey all worthy beings (veneyyas) to the Path, Fruition and Nibbana and thus become their refuge; they are designated Perfectly Self-Enlightened Ones, Omniscient Buddhas, Lords of the three worlds. Since our noble Bodhisatta also is of such nature, he too is a Prefectly Self-Enlightened One, Lord of the three worlds and an Incomparable Buddha. (This is the answer.)

The appearance of many miracles on attainment of Buddhahood.

When the Bodhisatta attained Omniscience and became a genuine Buddha in the three worlds of beings, at day break, thereby causing all the ten thousand world systems to vibrate and resound, the whole of the ten thousand world systems reached the height of beauty with decorations as follows:

The colours of cylindrical streamers set up on the edge of the universe in the east reached the edge of the universe in the west, the colours of cylindrical streamers set up on the edge of universe in the west also reached the edge of the universe in the east. Similarly, the colours of the cylindrical streamers set up on the edge of the universe in the south reached the edge of the universe in the north; and the colours of the cylindrical streamers set up on the edge of the universe in the north reached the edge of the universe in the south. The colours of the cylindrical streamers set up on the surface of the earth reached the Brahma world; and the colours of streamers set up in the Brahma world reached the surface of the earth.

All kinds of flowering trees in the ten thousand world-systems blossomed simultaneously irrespective of the season. All kinds of fruitbearing trees also bore fruit in bunches and clusters simultaneously irrespective of the season. Flowers also blossomed strangely on the trunks, branches and creepers. Bunches of flowers dangled from invisible plants in the sky. Lotus flowers on leafless stems blooming strangely, each in seven layers, came out breaking through big slabs of rock which formed the lower stratum of the earth. This being the case, the ten thousand world-systems of jatikkhetta (the realm of birth of a Bodhisatta), quaked gently at that moment and looked like huge spheres of flowers flown up or like well-arranged flower-beds.

Besides these miracles, the thirty-two Great Omens described in the Chapter on the birth of the Bodhisatta also made themselves manifest.

Making the joyful, solemn utterance (Udana).

The Buddha who had thus attained Omniscience and became endowed with all the attributes and glories of Buddhahood reflected thus:

"I have been emancipated indeed from the enormous suffering of samsara: I have achieved indeed the most exhalted state of perfectly Self-Enligtened One, teacher of the three worlds. I have achieved indeed a great victory. I am one who can liberate all the sentient beings from the fetters of the three worlds by preaching the Dhamma."

When he thus reflected, there arose repeatedly in the mind continuum of the Buddha very exceedingly exulting joy (piti); with the tempo of the joy thus appearing repeatedly, the Buddha uttered forth as was the established custom with all the Omniscient Buddha, after achieving Buddhahood, the following two verses of intense joy:

(1) Anekajatisamsaram, sandhavissam anibbisam gahakaram gavesanto, dukkha jati punappunnam.

Unable to cut off the root of repeated existences in samsara taking conception in four ways* is a great misery, for a body from rebirth is followed and oppressed inexorably by ageing, sickness and death, it is no happiness at all but toilsome and distressing. Therefore, as a Bodhisatta, searching the diligent builder of this house of 'Khanda', and not finding him because I had then not yet acquired the great Sabbannuta Nana which discerns clearly the real culprit, namely, Craving the carpenter as the cause of dukkha, I had to wander restlessly revolving with the wheel of samsara although I had no liking for and was in constant fear of the generator (mill) of dukkha, comprising the five aggregates.

(2) Gahakaraka ditthosi, puna geham na kahasi sabba te phasuka bhagga, gahakutam visankhatam visankharamgatam cittam, tanhanam khayamajjhaga.

You!, Craving the carpenter, the wicked cause of suffering diligently building up the house of five aggregates which are enmeshed in dukkha! Now having become a Buddha and being endowed with Sabbannuta Nana I clearly discem you, Craving the house builder! You shall not build again the house of five aggregates intertwined with dukkha, because, your legs, your hands and your life have been cut off four times with axe of the Magga Nana and you are like an uprooted stump. All the rafters of defilements firmly fixed in your decorated house of aggregates have now been broken to pieces without leaving even a slight trace of past tendencies and inherent inclinations. Ignorance (avijja), the king post of the house, which keeps the Four Truths and Nibbana hidden from view and which keeps them far, far away has been pulverised. My mind which is free from dirt-like defilements has reached Nibbana, the palace of peace, out of the scope of samkhara and all suffering of samsara. I, the Supreme Buddha of the three worlds, have realised the Fourth (Arahatta) Maggaphala, extinction of one hundred and eight forms of craving** to the delight and ecomium of the Devas and Brahmas of the ten thousand world systems.

N.B. There are two kinds of udanas--manasa udana, which is uttered only mentally; and vacasa udana, which is uttered verbally. The udana gatha beginning with 'Anekajatisamsaram etc.,' was recited by the Buddha only mentally and thus should be deemed as manasa udana; the udanas in the Udana Pali Text beginning with 'Yada' have patu bhavanti dhamma, etc., were uttered verbally by the Buddha. So these udanas in the Udana Pali Text should be regarded as vacasa udanas.

(The categories of Dhamma mentioned in this Chapter on the attainment of Buddhahood, namely, the Paticcasamuppada, the four Patisambhida' Nanas, the six Asadharana Nanas, the Dasabala Nanas, the CuddasaBuddha Nana, the eighteen Avenika Gunas, and the four vesarajja Nanas, will be described neither too briefly not too elaborately in the Chapter on the Dhamma jewel, Dhammaratana.)

End of Chapter on Attainment of Buddhahood.

*. Conception in four ways: Four yonis, four ways of being born, namely, andaja oviparous; jalabuja viviparous; sansedaja moisture-sprung; opapatika spontaneous. (P.E.D)

**. One hundred and eight forms of craving: craving, tanha, is the chief root of suffering and is the cause of ever continuing cycle of rebirths. It is synonymous with greed, lobha or raga. Basically, it is of three aspects; sensual craving, kamatanha; craving for rebirth, especially in higher realms (bhava tanha); craving for annihilation (of self). vibhavatanha. Corresponding to the six sense objects, each of these aspects of tanha multiplies into six forms of craving, viz: craving for visible objects, for sounds, odours, tastes, bodily impressions, mental impressions (r|patanha, sadda-tanha, gandha-tanha, rasa-tanha, photthabbha-tanha, dhamma-tanha), thus totalling eighteen forms of craving. Again, taking into consideration three periods of time, as present, past and future, which apply to each of these eighteen forms of tanha, one can distinguish fifty four different forms of craving. Finally, these fifty-four forms of craving can arise in the mind continuum of one's own or of others; thus one hundred and eight forms of craving are enumerable in all.

Chapter 8


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