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THE NINE ATTRIBUTES OF THE BUDDHA

Sayagyi U Kyaw Htut

Abhidhamma Lectures given at 'Myinjusaka House' University Avenue,
Yangon, Burma

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Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammasambuddhassa

Pali Verse:

         "Buddhaguno ananto,

         Dhammaguno ananto,

         Samghaguno ananto,

         Matapituguno ananto,

         Acariyaguno ananto,

         Aham vandami sabbada."

English translation:

"The beneficence of the Buddha is infinite;

The beneficence of the Dhamma is infinite;

The beneficence of the Samgha is infinite;

The beneficence of our parents is infinite;

The beneficence of our teachers is infinite;

We always pay our homage to them."

        The Buddha, the Dhamma and the Samgha, which are known as the "Three Gems", and our parents and our teachers are our Five Great Benefactors. The benefactions bestowed on us by them are innumerable. For this reason we always pay homage to them.

         The Buddhists recite the above Pali verse at all times and also make their children learn it by heart. They believe that if one bears it in mind in the course of one's daily duties, one can overcome any danger one might encounter. According to Buddhist tradition, whenever there are occasions for rejoicing or for sorrow, those functions or ceremonies are always carried out under the patronage of our Five Great Benefactors.

        Parents who are the very first teachers of their children teach them when they are young, that the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Samgha, which are the Three Gems, parents and teachers are their Great Benefactors of Infinite Beneficence.

         From the moment conception takes place within our mother's womb we have been under her care. Then, from the time of our birth, we grow up under the tender care of our parents. Until such time as we set up a separate family of our own we are not free from their protection. Parents are, indeed, pillars of strength for their children.

         In the same way, the teachers teach, admonish and train the children when they are still young and are studying at school so that they would become responsible citizens when they grow up. They are taught in such a way that they come to know what they did not know before and gain new skills. For attainment of knowledge and skills, teachers also are pillars of strength for us.

        But, do we really understand the infinite beneficence of the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Samgha, the Three Gems which are far more precious than all the other gems? The Buddha is endowed with nine attributes which are well-known not only in the human world but also throughout the world of the devas and of brahmas. All Buddhists realize and accept the fact that these nine attributes are those which are worthy of and pertain only to the Buddhas.

         Every time we make obeisance to the Buddha we recite the passage containing the nine attributes of the Buddha, starting with Araham and ending with Bhagava. In all humility and with due respect and devotion to the Buddha we ponder upon and contemplate those nine attributes. With these attributes as a basis of measure or assessment, one may ask: "How did the Buddha come to possess these beneficent attributes which he so deserved? How did he come to be acclaimed the Enlightened One throughout the world of human beings?"

        The Buddha was born more than 2600 years ago as an ordinary man. But, because of his fulfillment of the Ten Perfections (ten principal virtues brought to perfection by Bodhisattas), the Buddha was able to comprehend clearly the true Dhamma sought after by many people. Thus, the Buddha came to be endowed with limitless power, limitless good kamma, and limitless wisdom. He is, indeed, the 'Incomparable Person' .That 'Incomparable Person' was acclaimed by people of those days as the truly Enlightened One, the Buddha. They approached him with confidence, Conviction and gladness. Why is it so? Why did they do that?

1. The Attribute of Araham

        Even before the appearance of the Buddha in this world, there was one Uruvela Kassapa, a leader of one thousand ascetics, who claimed him self to be an 'Araha', who was also addressed by others as "Araha". Soon after the attainment of Enlightenment, the Buddha delivered his discourse first to the 'Pancavaggi', the group of five bhikkhus, then to Yasa the son of a rich merchant, and afterwards to fifty-four friends of Yasa. All of them attained arahatship and thus there appeared in this world sixty-one arahats including the Buddha himself.

         The Buddha then sent out those sixty arahats individually to the four quarters of the world, for the purpose of promotion and propagation of the dhamma they had acquired. The Buddha himself, proceeding to Uruvela forest tried to convert Uruvela Kassapa and his one thousand ascetic followers by teaching them the dhamma together with demonstrations of psychic power. In spite of the Buddha's teaching of the dhamma and demonstration of psychic power Uruvela Kassapa just remarked, "It is true that Gotama is powerful, but he is not yet an araha like me."

        The term 'araha' comes from the Pali word 'arahanta'. It means a person who has abandoned defilements (kilesas) of greed, hatred, conceit and wrong view. Araha, arahatta, rahanta are words which have changed stage by stage. Here, an arahat or rahanta is the same as araha. In an arahat defilements have ceased just as in the case of the Enlightened One, the Buddha. But he has not yet abandoned his habits from past existences. Although he is now free from defilements, actions and way of speech acquired in the past when he was not yet free from defilements still remain within himself. He, therefore, tends to act or speak according to that habit although he is now an arahat.

        Even the Ven. Sariputta, the chief disciple of the Buddha, once unthinkingly jumped across a small stream while he was going on his alms round. This was because he was a monkey in one of his past existences. His habit of the past had not yet been abandoned and still lay innate in his nature. It was on this account that as the original behaviour (of a monkey) cropped up, the Ven. Sariputta unwittingly acted in a manner not appropriate to his position.

        The Buddha, who is worthy of the epithet 'Araha', has completely abandoned all defilements together with their innate nature. All his physical actions, verbal actions, and mental actions - are never without mindfulness, they always arise in association with wisdom. Having completely abandoned these defilements, viz, greed, hatred, bewilderment, conceit and wrong view, his morality is of the purest. And his attribute of 'Araham' came to be well-known through out the world.

2. The Attribute of Sammasambuddha

         A Sammasambuddha is a Perfectly Self-enlightened One, who, being endowed with Sabbannuta Nana, knows all the dhammas. The term 'Sabbannu' is a combination of two words, 'Sabba' and 'nu'. 'Sabba' means all, i.e. all the dhammas and 'nu' means knowing or understanding, i.e, knowing or understanding thoroughly. This Pali word 'sabbannu' was, in fact, widely used even before the time of the Buddha. In those days, many people practised in their own way and established different creeds or sects of their own and claimed themselves to be 'sabbannus', the omniscient ones.

         These 'sabbannus' and experts of various creeds asked the Buddha many questions; to each of their questions, the Buddha was able to give a comprehensive answer without fail. The Buddha knew much more than what those people knew and also everything that should be known in this world. Besides these people there were monarchs from the human world, monarchs from the deva world, monarchs from the brahma world, bhikkhus, brahmins, rich householders, merchants, field labourers, the rich as well as the poor, who came to pay obeisance to the Buddha, who asked him many questions and put up many problems. To all their questions and problems the Buddha gave satisfactory answers and solutions.

        Therefore, they all fervidly acclaimed him "one who knows all the dhammas, one whose knowledge of the dhamma is absolute. He was widely praised and his attribute of "Sammasambuddha", one who knows all there is to be known, both mundane and supramundane, became well known throughout the world.

3. The Attribute of Vijjacarana Sampanna

        Thus, the Buddha is endowed with the attribute of 'Araham', the purest in morality or character and the attribute of 'Sammasambuddha, the perfect self-enlightenment, which is the ultimate in wisdom. But, in this human world, where there are so much opposition and competition among people, for one to be a perfect refuge, the protector of beings, these two qualifications are not I sufficient. Even among people of good character and scholars, can we say that there will be no rivals and enemies? For people to come in all their humility and reverence to the Buddha as a safe refuge he needs to be endowed with all kinds of power to be able to overcome all danger, to protect beings firm all enemies. The Buddha, in fact, has all these powers.

        On account of these powers, people of those days fervidly acclaimed him "one endowed with Protective Powers (Vijjacaranasampana). This term was in common use in those days.

        'Vijja' is vijja panna, the knowledge which enables one to give demonstrations of power. 'Carana' is the basic mode of conduct or practice under taken by one, so as to acquire vijja or power.

        Even before the time of the Buddha, there were brahmin scholars who were experts in the three vedas and people who had attained jhana abhinnas (mental absorption and special apperception) through skilful practice of the various caranas.

        Based on these jhanas, there were people who had acquired vijja panna associated with supernormal powers such as Dibbacakkhu Nana, the divine power of sight, Dibbacakkhu Nana, the divine power of hearing; Pubbenivasa Nana, knowledge of past existences; Iddhivida Nana, supernormal psychic power with which one wields various kinds of supernormal powers; Cetopariya Nana, knowledge of the minds of others. Those people had acquired these various powers through carana practice.

        That the Buddha himself had fulfilled this course of carana practice to the greatest extent with expert knowledge and skill is not to be doubted. His attainment of Vijja Panna through carana practice is incomparable.

         In the Buddha's order of the Samgha, the Ven. Maha Moggallana was the one without rival among those endowed with supernormal powers. But he could not perform the Yamaka patihariya, the twin miracle of fire and water like the Buddha. Besides, there are many miracles which can only be performed by Buddhas.

         By means of such miracles the Buddha had converted many people from their evil ways.

         As many people of those days came to hear about this, the Buddha's attribute of 'Vijjacarana sampanna' become well-known throughout the world.

         Thus, with these three attributes, viz., the attribute of 'Araham', the purest morality; the attribute of 'Sammasambuddha', the ultimate in wisdom; the attribute of 'Vijjacarana sampanna', the attribute of endowment with various kinds of power, the Buddha might boldly declare, "In this world, I am the only Perfectly Self-enlightened One". He is, indeed, one who is endowed with the attributes that are worthy of our veneration and our taking refuge in him.

        Should the Buddhas, even though they are worthy of such veneration, stay by themselves comfortably and complacently in solitary seclusion? No, they should not.

         The Buddhas would have to teach the dhamma they have known and seen to all beings. They would have to set up the Order of Samghas from among their followers. They would also have to impart the knowledge of the dhamma to human beings, to devas and to brahmas so that darkness of ignorance would disappear and the light of the dhamma would appear and lead beings to the 'Safe Shore' of Nibbana.

        How did the Buddha work out to accomplish those important tasks? How did the remaining attributes come to be well-known throughout the world even to this day? Let us continue and find out.

4. The Attribute of Sugato

         The compassion of the Buddhas towards sentient beings is infinite. With the eye of wisdom he searched for those who should be liberated and for those who could be liberated from the round of rebirth (Samsara). From the time of his Enlightenment to the time of his passing away, the Buddha was the most hard working person.

        Dividing up the day, starting from dawn this day to dawn the next day, into three parts, he worked for the good of beings fulfilling their needs, both physical and mental. When going on alms-round, after having his meal, he would make those who deserved to be liberated at the place of the alms-round establish themselves in Sotapatti magga and phala, etc., or establish themselves in sarana gamana, or observe the moral precepts. Back at the monastery he taught the resident bhikkhus the methods of meditation practice. Later, he would deliver discourses to lay disciples who had come to pay obeisance to him. Then as night fell, the Buddha would again deliver discourses to the bhikkhus who were engaged in meditation practice to help them in their effort to again Magga and Phala. At about midnight when the Buddha was all alone devas and brahmas would come to the Buddha and he would answer their questions and solve their problems. It was only during the last third of the last watch that the Buddha would go to sleep, for a period lasting about one hour and twenty minutes; even then not without mindfulness and comprehension.

        Then with his desire for the good of the whole world and all human beings the Buddha searched, with great compassion, for those who deserved to be liberated from the round of rebirth. By day or by night, the Buddha would go to any place, by any means; by means of jhana or on foot, if necessary. If it was for the good of someone and if it needed to be done personally by the Buddha, he would always go and get it done himself.

         In each year, the Buddha would stay in one place only during the rainy season retreat (vassa). During the remaining, nine months he would travel widely to various towns and districts delivering his discourses, thus doing good for the people. This he did unrelentingly until he passed away at he age of eighty.

        For this reason, for him there were such words of praise and approval: "The Buddha's coming to us indeed, good and auspicious! it is quite true that wherever he goes, only good results will come about!" Thus, the Buddha was widely praised and this attribute of the Buddha, 'Sugata', came to be well-known throughout the world.

5. The Attribute of Lokavidu

         After he became the Buddha, the Perfectly Self-enlightened One, through his realization of the Four Noble Truths underneath the Bo tree, the Buddha's main objective was to work for the liberation of sentient beings from samsara dukkha. That goal was not easy to achieve under the complicated social system of those days.

         There were the Titthiyas (heretics) of various sects, with a large following of ascetics, each claiming himself to be the 'Enlightened One'. There were also rival kings, who were rulers of independent kingdoms; also ministers and warriors (bramanas and khattiyas) belonging to the high castes; and farmers and laborers (vessas and suddas) of the lower castes.

         In his dealings with various classes of people, the Buddha never had any hitches. He always accepted an invitation, whether it be from an ascetic, a brahmin, a king, a householder, a merchant, or a farmer without any distinction. He would go to any place he was invited. if he was invited by a king, he would know their traditions and customs if he was invited by a poor man he would know his condition and his way of thinking. He understood the social conditions of the people as well as those of kings.

         He knew all about the world with its men, devas and brahmas and was wise as to the affairs of them all. His penetrative knowledge of the maturity or immaturity of their natural skill and intelligence, their habits and dispositions and their desires, was unrivalled. Thus, he was praised widely and his attribute of 'Lokavidu' became well-known throughout the world.

6. The Attribute of Anuttaro purisa dammasrathi

         In guiding and admonishing someone according to his needs, or according to the maturity of his natural skill and intelligence also, the Buddha is unrivalled. Because he knew, by his own intellect, the desires and innate disposition of each individual, the discourses and admonition given by the Buddha were incomparable.

        Fierce and brutal as they were in the be ginning, men like Angulimala, devas like Alavaka and animals like Nandopananda the dragon, as soon as they came to the presence of the Buddha and heard his voice, always became docile and listened attentively to the Buddha's admonition

        Therefore, he was acclaimed 'the Incomparable One' in taming those who deserved to be tamed. And his attribute of 'Anuttaro purisa dammasarathi' became well-known not only in the world of human beings but also in the world of animals and the world of brahmas.

         The Buddha delivered his discourses in the world of human beings and also in the world of devas and brahmas, and came to have a large following of arahat bhikkhus the Order of bhikkhus (Samgha) and lay disciples. In fact he was able to firmly organize and set up a large Order of the Samgha in accordance with the Rules of Discipline for the Samghas.

         The fact that the Buddha had been so successful in his leadership were due to:

        (i) His being endowed with the attribute of 'Sugata', because of which many people from all countries, towns and villages enthusiastically acclaimed him with this statement: "The coming of the Buddha is, indeed, for our own good."

         (ii) His being endowed with the attribute of Lokavidu, because of which his knowledge of the world, with its men, devas and brahmas, together with their desires and dispositions, was unrivalled.

         (iii) His being endowed with the attribute of 'Anuttaro purisa dammasarathi,' because of which he was incomparable in taming those who deserved to be tamed.

         The Buddha always exercised the power of these attributes; it was on this account that he was so successful.

         It is also because of these incomparable worthy attributes of the Buddha that people from all walks of life pay homage to the Buddha, in all humility and with due respect.

7. The Attribute of Satthadeva manussanam

         The Pali words 'Acariya' and 'Sattha' are usually translated as teacher. Therefore, the Buddha's attribute of 'Satthadeva manussanam is translated as 'the teacher of men, devas and brahmas'. In this connection, we should take note of the meaning of 'Sattha' as used in the Pasadika Sutta in Pathika Vagga of Digha Nikaya.

         During the time of the Buddha there was a leader of a certain sect whose name was Nigantha Nataputta. When he died there arose much discord and disarray amongst his disciples and the sect itself broke up. Seeing this, Cunda, a disciple of the Buddha, became apprehensive that the same fate might befall the disciples of the Buddha after his passing away. With much apprehension and worry, Cunda approached the Buddha and put up his question. The Buddha explained to him that there were, in fact, two kinds of 'Sattha', viz, Sammasambuddha Sattha', one who knows all there is to be known and 'Asammasambuddha Sattha', one who does not know all there is to be known.

        According to that Sutta, 'Sattha' should therefore be interpreted as the 'all knowing Buddha'. So, if we interpret the Buddha's attribute 'Satthadeva manussanam' as the 'Homage-worthy Buddha, who is the Leader of men, devas and brahmas, I think it will be more appropriate, complete and meaningful than just simply 'Teacher'.

        The Ven.Sariputtas mother, the Brahmin lady, was one who worshipped the Brahma. Before the passing away (Parinibbana) of the Ven. Sariputta he went on a visit to his mothers house. While he was there some devas and brahmas came at night to the Ven. Sariputta to pay homage to him. His mother, the brahmin lady seeing them asked her son about them and he answered that they were the devas and the brahmas. Then only she realized, 'My son, a disciple of the Buddha, is now one who is venerated even by devas, and brahmas!' With a feeling of great awe she, then and there, came to have a full confidence and conviction in the Buddha, the preceptor of her son, and took refuge in the Buddha.

         If devas and brahmas paid homage to the Chief Disciple of the Buddha, there could be no doubt that they would be paying homage to the Buddha himself, not occasionally, but each and every night, with the greatest respect. Therefore, this attribute of "Sattha deva manussanam" came to be well-known throughout the world. Even the Titthiyas, who were the rivals of the Buddha, could not help hearing about it and were struck with awe.

8. The Attribute of Buddho

        In those days, although Titthiya leaders like Makkhali Gosala and Purana Kassapa, with had large numbers of followers, were claiming themselves to be Buddhas, the number of people who venerated the Buddha after hearing his discourses was growing day by day. The Buddha had compassion on everyone as if he were his own child, without making any distinction between high caste and low caste, kings and brahmins, rich men and poor men. The bhikkhu disciples of the Buddha also, although they had followed him from various classes and strata of people, were not different within the Order of the Samgha. The Buddha had set up the Order of the Samgha by laying down Rules of Discipline and Conduct for all, without any discrimination.

         In Kevatta Sutta, Silakkhanda Pali, Kevatta said to the Buddha that if the Buddha were to ask a bhikkhu to demonstrate certain supernatural or magical powers, many people, many times more than at present, would become Buddhists. It was then that the Buddha gave the discourse on three methods of winning over people to Kevatta as follows:

         (i) Iddhipatihariya -- winning over people by show of magical or supernatural powers (which could be confused with knowledge of gandhari);

         (ii) Adesanapatihariya -- winning over people by show of surprising powers through the knowledge of other peoples mind (which could be confused with Cintamani knowledge);

        (iii) Anusasanipatihariya -- winning over people by instruction and explanation of what is proper and what is not proper (which is the honest and blameless method).

         In winning over people with this honest and blameless Anusasanipatihariya method, the Buddha is unrivalled, and because of this, his attribute of 'Buddho' became well-known through out the world.

         At that time, people holding different views of their own were searching for the truth, but none of them found the way to liberation from existences, the truth leading to the realization of Nibbana. The Buddha was the only one who found the truth. It was only the Buddha who guided people and meticulously expounded to them the dhamma which he had known by his own intellect and Insight, and gave them the necessary instructions and guidance.

        Having been thus guided regarding the Four Ariya Truths and having personally practised the Dhamma, many people attained Magga and Phala (Insight and Fruition). The Buddha could make people know the dhamma they had not known before, he could make it clear to those who had no clear comprehension of the dhamma, he could explain and give instruction on any problem, to the satisfaction of everyone.

        Therefore, people commented: "He is, in deed, a noble personage, one who could make people know the dhamma they had not known before; he is the true Buddha!" Thus, they commented with a deep feeling of reverence and many people came to have a full confidence and conviction in the Buddha. Like a flash of light coming out as the sun breaks through darkness, people came to have a clear comprehension of the dhamma.

        The degree of their comprehension could be such that one could almost cry out with this spontaneous utterance: "Vision arose, wisdom arose, knowledge arose, special knowledge arose, light arose."

        Because he could make people know the dhamma they did not know before, and because he could guide, explain and show the light to people in the dark, many people kept talking and, the Buddha's attribute of 'Buddho' became well known throughout the world.

        The above eight attributes concern only with the mental powers of the Buddha, brought about by his own unrivalled intellect and Insight. The Buddha was born in the human world and as a human being was endowed with the physical and mental aggregates, the five khandhas. We have seen the admirable, noble mental qualities of the Buddha and have venerated him. We will now study the physical body of the Buddha.

9. The Attribute Of Bhagava

        After receiving the definite prophesy of Buddhahood as Sumedha the hermit, the Buddha had, with the view to attaining Enlightenment, fulfilled the practice of paramis (Perfections) for four asankheyyas and a hundred thousand aeons. As a result of these paramis the Buddha in his last existence was born as the son of King Suddhodana of the Sakyans, in the noble caste of khattiyas. His parents, besides being of the noble caste were of the highest in society being the king and queen of an important kingdom. Even as a child, by his physical signs and marks, it was predicted that if he were to remain in the life of a layman he would surely become a king of the whole universe (Cakkavala), or if he were to leave the lay life and lead the homeless life of an ascetic he would surely become the Enlightened One, the noblest among men.

        Abandoning the royal life of a king, he took up the austere practices for six years, and later the Middle Way, and finally attained Enlightenment. The Buddha being endowed with such attributes as the thirty-two characteristics of a Great Man together with the eighty minor marks as mentioned in the Lakkhana Sutta of Pathika Vagga, looked extremely respectable and venerable. As he had completely abandoned all defilements, his faculties were bright and clear and dignified. The upadhi, the physical form, of the Buddha is unsurpassed by anyone else's and cannot at all be compared.

         Anyone who sees the Buddha is inspired with confidence and esteem in him and instinctively pays obeisance to him. All wise men, whether kings or brahmins or bhikkhus, also would pay obeisance to the Buddha when they see him.

        For these reasons people kept talking about the Buddha's attribute of 'Bhagava' and he became well-known with this attribute throughout the world.

        The attribute of 'bhagava' which concerns mainly with the physical form (rupakaya) of the Buddha cannot be fully described by anyone, not even by one with ten million tongues.

         Thus, of the innumerable attributes .of the Buddha these nine spread resoundingly throughout the world. These attributes have been repeatedly mentioned in the Nikayas. They truly reflect the greatness of his intellect, his ability to win over people and his capacity for work!

        A person strives hard to be enlightened. On being enlightened, i.e, on becoming a Buddha, he teaches the Dhamma he has known by his own intellect and insight.

         This dhamma is the true dhamma, the dhamma which liberates one from the round of rebirth (samsara). Through this dhamma, not only human beings but the devas and brahmas also attained freedom from samsara. Though the teaching of the Dhamma, the Order of the Samgha came to be firmly established to the extent that the Order exists up to this day, more than two thousand five hundred years after the Parinibbana (the demise) of the Buddha. Today, the Pali texts, the Pitakas, still remain in their original purity.

        Just how did the Buddha manage to main tam the Teaching for the good of mankind for such a long time?

The Three Groups of Attributes

         If one carefully considers the attributes of the Buddha, which are so widely acclaimed by the whole world, one will find that they fall into three groups.

         Group One: Comprises the first three attributes. They are the attributes which must be possessed by one who claims to be a Buddha. The three attributes are:

         (i) Araham : Being absolutely unblemished by defilements (kilesas), he is of the purest morality.

         (ii) Sammasambuddho: He knows all there is to be known.

         (iii) Vijjacaranasampanno He is endowed with all kinds of psychic power and is invincible.

         Group Two : Comprises the next three attributes, which describe the Buddha's ability to win over people. The three attributes are:

         (i) Sugato : For the good of all beings he goes to any place, at all times.

         (ii) Lokavidu : He knows all about the world and is wise as to the affairs of the world.

         (iii) Anuttaro purisa dammasarathi : He is in comparable in taming beings.

         Group Three : Comprises the last three attributes which declare to the world that -

         (i) Satthadevamanussanam : He is the Leader of men, devas and brahmas.

         (ii) Buddho : He makes others understand the Truth most clearly.

         (iii) Bhagava : He is the Most Exalted One.

         By thus classifying the attributes of the Buddha into three groups and considering them in the light of the role taken by the Buddha for the good of the Sasana and the welfare of mankind, one will realize the greatness of the success achieved by the Buddha and one will, come to revere him and venerate him all the more on that account.

Contemplation and Practice

        Thus if, with firm conviction and clear comprehension, one holds the attributes of the Buddha in the highest esteem one will clearly realize what responsibilities one should take up in this world.

        1. Araham : By constantly bearing in mind and repeatedly contemplating the Buddha's attribute of Araham (i.e, his being of the purest morality), one will clearly realize that one must strive hard to uphold a much higher moral standard.

        2. Sammasambuddho : Also, by constantly bearing in mind and repeatedly contemplating the Buddha's attribute of Sammasambuddho (i.e, that he knows all there is to be known), one will clearly realize that, as one's moral standard gets higher, one must accordingly strive hard to be competent, intelligent and well-informed in whatever responsible position one might be.

         3. Vijjicarana sampanno : Also, by constantly bearing in mind and repeatedly contemplating the Buddha's attribute of Vijjacarana sampanno (i.e. that he is endowed with all kinds of power and is invincible, one will not only have a high moral standard, intellect and competence in one's work, but will also clearly realize that one must have dauntless courage to face all dangers and ability to overcome all obstacles.

         4. Sugato: Also, by constantly bearing in mind and repeatedly contemplating the Buddha's attribute of Sugato (i.e, if it is for the good of all beings, he goes to any place, at all times), one will clearly realize that it is one's duty to untiringly go to any place and take up any activity in accordance with one's capabilities in the interest of the people.

         5. Lokavidu: Also, by constantly bearing in mind and repeatedly contemplating the Buddha's attribute of Lokavidu (i.e, that he knows all about the world and is wise as to the affairs of the world), one will clearly realize that in carrying out welfare and social activities, it is one's duty to try and under stand the traditions, habits and interests of the people.

         6. Anuttaro purisa dammasarathi Also, by constantly bearing in mind and repeatedly contemplating the Buddha's attribute of Anuttaro purisa dammasarathi (i.e, that he is incomparable in taming beings), one will clearly realize that in carrying out welfare and social activities, one's duty to train the foolish to be wise and the wise to be ever wiser is very important.

        7. Sattha deva manussanam : Also, by constantly bearing in mind and repeatedly contemplating the Buddha's attribute of Sattha deva manussanam (i.e. that he is the the Leader of men, devas and brahmas), one will clearly realize that in carrying out welfare and social activities, one must strive hard so as to gain the enthusiastic support of the majority of the people from all walks of life.

        8. Buddho Also, by constantly bearing in mind and repeatedly contemplating the Buddha's attribute of Buddho (i.e, that he makes other understand the Truth most clearly), one will clearly realize that in carrying out welfare and social activities one will succeed only by making others see the truth not by using authority or by giving bribes in form of cash or kind or by promises of official positions.

         9. Bhagava Also, by constantly bearing in mind and repeatedly contemplating the Buddha's attribute of Bhagava (i.e, that he is the Most Exalted One), one will clearly realize that to gain respect from others, it is very important for one to have dignity by being proper in one's dress, speech and behaviour.



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