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Oo Maung


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There is only one unique situation where Suffering (Dukkha) is eliminated. It is Nibbana without geographical location. It is there where the four fundamental elements find no footing.

Two Male Chief Disciples: Thera Sariputta (Right Wing) and Thera Moggallana (Left Wing)
Two Female Chief Disciples: Theri Khema (Right Wing) and Theri Uppalavanna (Left Wing)
Two seven-year-old Arahatswere Samanera Sumana and Samanera Pandita (Sukha) (Ref: Dhammapada V. 382 & V.80)
Two kinds of Happiness (Sukha): Kayasukha and Cittasukha.
Two Foremost Teachers: The Mother and the Father
Two kinds of personality Belief (Sakkaya Ditthi): (1) takes delight in individuality (Sakkaya bhirata) and (2) who strives towards cessation of mind and matter phenomena(Nibbana bhirata).
Two kinds of Individual (Bhirata): eternity belief (sassata ditthi) and annihilation belief (uccheda ditthi).
Two persons which one can never pay back gratitude-debts in full: the Mother and the Father who raised one up.

Two principles guarding the world ( Lokapala dhamma):

  1. Shame to do the evil (hiri) and
  2. Fear to do the evil (ottapa)

Two kinds of Bhava:

  1. Kamma Bhava: Kammas caused by four Upadanas
  2. Upapatti Bhava: Rebirth Bhava

The Three Baskets: Tipitakas: Vinaya, Sutta and Abhidhamma

Three kinds of Bodhisatta; those destined to become a Buddha ():

  1. Fulfilling the practice of Perfection (parami) for four asankheyyas and one thousand aeons (pannadhikabodhisatta), (Intellectual Bodhisatta)
  2. Fufilling the practice of Perfection (parami) with conviction (saddha) for eight asankheyyas and one hundred thousand aeons (saddhadhikabodhisatta (Devotional Bodhisatta), and
  3. Fulfilling the practice of Perfection (parami) with Endevour predominating for sixteen asankheyyas and one hundred thousand aeons (viriyadhikabodhisatta) (Energetic Bodhisatta)

Three kinds of Sasana:

  1. (1) learning the Buddha's Teaching, Pariyatti Sasana;
  2. (2) practical application of the Buddha's Teaching, Patipatti Sasana; and
  3. (3) the realization of the Buddha's Teaching, i.e., attainment of jhana, magga, phala and Nibbana, Pativedha Sasana.

The Three Types of Essence:

  1. Dana
  2. Sila
  3. Vipassana

Three characteristic marks or signs inherent in a sentient being:

  1. Impermanence ( anicca),
  2. Suffering or unsatisfactoriness (dukkha) and
  3. The uncontrollable and non-self nature (anatta)

Three kinds of attachment to existence (Raga):

  1. In the sensuous sphere;
  2. In the fine-material sphere and
  3. In the non-material sphere.

Three categories of bhikkhu:

  1. (a)Therabhikkhu or elders are bhikkhus who have spent ten or more years in the Order;
  2. (b) Majjhimabhikkhu or those of middle standing who have been in the Order from five to nine years;
  3. (c) Navabhikkhu or newly admitted ones who have been in the Order for less than five years.

Three kinds of craving (Tanha):

  1. Attachment for pleasures of the senses (kama tanha)
  2. Attachment for continued existence (bhava tanha)
  3. Attachment to non-belief in kamma for rebirth nor future existenxe (vibhava tanha)

The Three Kappas (Disasters)

  1. The disaster by famine
  2. The disaster by weapons
  3. The disaster by epidemic

The Three Lokas or Worlds:

  1. The Conditioned World (Sankhara Loka)
  2. The Animal World (Satta Loka)
  3. The Inanimate World (Okasa Loka)

The Three Lokuttara Dhamma:

  1. The Dhamma of Magga
  2. The Dhamma of Phala
  3. The Dhamma of Nibbana

The Three kinds of training (sikkha):

  1. Virtue or morality (sila);
  2. Concentration (samadhi);
  3. Wisdom or understanding (panna).


The Four apayas (Nether Worlds)

  1. The Realm of intense continuous suffering/ Hell (Niraya);
  2. The Realm of animals (Tiracchana)
  3. The Realm of ever hungry beings (Peta)
  4. The Realm of miserable beings (Asurakaya).

Four Analytical Insights (patisambhidas):

  1. Into meaning and consequences of things (atthapatisambhida),
  2. Int the nature of the doctrine (dhammapatisambhida),
  3. Into the language, grammar and the syntax of the language (niruttipatisambhida) and
  4. Into the nature of the above three knowledges (patibhanapatisambhida).

Four Asavas (Intoxicant, stain, canker, corruption)

1. Kamasava:attachment to sensual pleasures
2.Bhavasava: attachment to rupa-jhana and arupa-jhana as well as to the existence in rupa and arupa planes.
3.Ditthasava: 62 kinds of false views
4.Avijjasava: ignorance with regard to the four Noble Truths, Past and Future Lives, and the Law of Dependent Orignation.

Four Attributes of Nibbana
  1. expounded by the Fully Enlightened One sammasambuddha desitam;
  2. free of sorrow (asokam);
  3. free of corruptions or kilesa (virajam)
  4. peace (khemam).

Four Brahma Viharas ( Sublime abode/ State of living)
1. Metta (Loving kindness, goodwill)
2. Karuna (Compassion)
3. Mudita (Sympathetic joy)
4. Upekkha (Equanimity)

Four Constituents of the body:

  1. 1. Kammaja rupa, corporeality caused by one's kamma.
  2. 2. Cittaja rupa, corporeality caused by one's mind.
  3. 3. Utuja rupa, corporeality caused by heat and cold.
  4. 4. Aharaja rupa, corporeality caused by nutritive essence.
The Four Foundations of Mindfulness:
  1. Kayanupassana Satipatthana: Contemplating the Body
  2. Vedananupassana SatipatthanaContemplating the Feeling
  3. Cittanupassana SatipatthanaContemplating the Consciousness
  4. Dhammanupassana SatipatthanaContemplating the Dhamma

Four Great Elements

1. Pathavi (Element of extension/ hardness and softness)
2. Apo (Element of Cohesion / cohesiveness and fluidity)
3. Tejo (Element of heat/ hotness and coldness)
4. Vayo (Element of motion / wind, vibration etc.)

Four Kinds of Assembly or gathering of people:
  1. assemblies of bhikkhus,
  2. assemblies of bhikkhunis,
  3. assemblies of male lay disciples and
  4. assemblies of female lay disciples.

Four kinds of Death (Marana)
  1. death through the expiry of life span, ayukkhaya marana;
  2. death through the expiry of the kammic force, kammakkhaya marana;
  3. death through the simultaneous expiry of both life span and kammic force, ubhayakkhaya marana; and
  4. death through the intervention of a destructive force, although the life-span and the kammic force have not ended, upacchedaka marana.

Four kinds of Iddhipadda:The root or basis of attaining completion or perfection

  1. chandiddhipado,- chanda
  2. viryaddhipado, - viriya
  3. cittiddhipado, - citta
  4. vimamsiddhipado, - vimamsa or panna

Four Kinds of Kammas:

  1. Garu Kammas: weighty kammas
  2. Asanna Kammas: deeds, words or thoughts on the verge of death
  3. Acinna Kammas: deeds, words or thoughts which are repeated or regular.
  4. Katatta Kammas: all other kammas

Four kinds of sammappadhana

  1. 1. uppannanam akusalanam dhammanam pahanaya vayamo,
  2. 2. anuppannanam akusalanam dhammanam anuppadaya, vayamo,
  3. 3. anuppannanam kusalanam dhammanam uppadaya vayamo, ,
  4. 4. uppannanam kusalanam dhammanam bhiyyobhaya vayamo.,
  1. 1. Effort to overcome or reject evil unwholesome acts that have arisen, or are in the course of arising;
  2. 2. Effort to avoid (not only in this life but also in the lives that follow) the arising of unwholesome acts that have not yet arisen,
  3. 3. Effort to arouse the arising of wholesome acts that have not yet arisen,
  4. 4. Effort to increase and to perpetuate the wholesome acts that have arisen or are in the course of arising.

(1)the effort to overcome (pahana-padhana), i.e. to overcome unwholesome states,

(2) the effort to avoid (samvara-padhana), i.e. the effort to avoid unwholesome (akusala) states, such as evil thoughts, etc.

(3) the effort to develop (bhavaná-padhana), i.e. to develop wholesome (kusala) states, such as the 7 elements of enlightenment

(4) the effort to maintain (anurakkhana-padhana),i.e. to maintain the wholesome states.

Four Magga (the Path leading to the Nibbana)

  1. The Path of Stream-winner ( Sotapatti-magga)
  2. The Path of Once-returner(Sakadagami-magga)
  3. The Path of Non-returner (Anagami-magga)
  4. The Path of Arahat (Arahatta-magga)

Four Material Requisites of Bhikkhus

  1. Robes
  2. Alms-food
  3. Dwelling, and
  4. Medicine

Four Noble Truths

  1. Dukkha Ariya Sacca( Comprehension of Suffering)
  2. Dukkha Samudaya Sacca ( Cause of Suffering)
  3. Dukkha Nirodha Ariya Sacca (Cessation of Suffering)
  4. Dukkha Nirodha Gamini Patipada Ariya Sacca or Magga Ariya Sacca(Path leading to Cessation of Suffering)

The Four Sacred Places:
  1. The birthplace of the Buddha (Lumbini on the Indian borders of Nepal).
  2. The place where the Buddha attained enlightenment (Buddha Gaya, in India).
  3. The place where the Buddha established the wheel of truth (Saranath), and
  4. The place where the Buddha attained Parinibbana (Kusinara-modern Kasia in India)

Four things in the world which are incomprehensible: Acinteyyas:

  1. the domain of a Buddha, Buddha-visaya;
  2. the sphere of the trances, jhana-visaya;
  3. the consequences of volitional action, kammavipaka; and
  4. brooding over the world, loka-cinta.

Four Upadanas:four causes of Kammas

  1. Kamupadana: sensual pleasures
  2. Ditthupadana:false view (belief in annihilation)
  3. Silabbatupadana: false views regarding practices for liberating oneself from samsaric cycle.
  4. Attavadupadana:false view based on belief in atta (soul)

Four Vipatti (Deficiencies)(Impairment; destruction; misfortune)

  1. Living during the time of bad rulers (Kalavipatti)
  2. Being reborn in four miserable existences (Gativipatti)
  3. Having physical deformities and disfigurements (Upadhivipatti) and
  4. Being deficient in intelligence, knowledge, mindfulness, right effort and diligence (Payogavipatti)


Five Aggregates(Khandhas):

  1. The aggregates of corporeality (rupakkhandha),
  2. The aggregates of sensation (vedanakkhandha),
  3. The aggregates of perception (sannakkhandha),
  4. The aggregates of volitional activities (sankharakkhandha) and
  5. The aggregates of consciousness (vinnanakkhandha).
Five Collections of the Teachings of the Buddha (Pancanikaya):
  1. Collection of long Discourses, Dighanikaya;
  2. Collection of medium-length Discourses, Majjhimanikaya;
  3. Collection of groups of connected Discourses, Samyuttanikaya;
  4. Collection: of numerically graduated Discourses, Anguttaranikaya; and
  5. Collection of shorter, i.e. ,the remaining Discourses, Khuddakanikaya
Five dhammas consist of
  1. Five nivaranas
  2. Five khandhas
  3. Twelve Ayatanas
  4. Seven Bojjhangas, and
  5. Four Ariya Saccas

Five Earliest Disciples of the Buddha:

  1. Kondanna,
  2. Vappa,
  3. Bhaddiya,
  4. Mahanama and
  5. Assaji.
Five Feelings (vedana)
  1. bodily pleasant feeling: sukha
  2. bodily pain: dukkha
  3. gladness: somanassa
  4. sadness: domanassa
  5. indifference: upekkha

The five great misdeeds that definitely lead to niraya at death. (Pancanantariya Kamma)

  1. Matricide,
  2. Patricide,
  3. The murder of an Arahant,
  4. The wounding of a Buddha and
  5. The creation of a Schism (splitting) in the Bhikkhu Samgha

Five Indriyas :
(Factors or faculties of Enlightenment)

  1. Saddhindriya: Faith or confidence
  2. Viriyindriya: energey or effort
  3. Satindriya: mindfulness
  4. Samadhindriya: concentration
  5. Pannindriya: wisdom

Five kinds of delightful satisfaction piti:

  1. The thrill of joy and delightful satisfaction of low intensity which makes the flesh tingle or creep:khuddaka piti;
  2. Instantaneous joy like a flash of lightning (of delightful satisfaction): khanika piti;
  3. A surge of delightful satisfaction or flood of joy like surf breaking on the shore; okkantika piti;
  4. Delightful satisfaction which transports and enables one to float in the air like a wisp of cotton, ubbega piti; and
  5. Intense delightful satisfaction which suffuses the whole body for a long time, or like a flood overflowing small tanks and ponds: pharana piti.

Five Kinds of Losses (Byasana)

  1. Loss of relatives (Nati-byasana)
  2. Loss of wealth (Bhoga-byasana)
  3. Loss of health due to illness (Roga-byasana)
  4. Loss of right view (Ditthi-byasana)
  5. Loss of morality (Sila-byasana)

The Five Nivarana or Hindrances of the way to liberation

  1. Kamachanda: sensual desire or lust
  2. Byapada: ill will, hatred or anger
  3. Thina middha: sloth and torpor
  4. Uddhacca, Kukkucca: restless and worry, and
  5. Vicikiccha: sceptical doubt or wavering

Five Spiritual Faculties (bala):

  1. faith: saddha
  2. energy: viriya
  3. mindfulness: sati
  4. concentration: samadhi
  5. wisdom: panna

The Five Veras (Enemies )

  1. Floods
  2. Fire(Conflagrations)
  3. Bad Ruler
  4. Thieves
  5. Bad sons and daughters who are unworthy heirs

Five Spiritual Faculties:

  1. faith (saddha);
  2. energy (viriya);
  3. mindfulness (sati);
  4. concentration (samadhi);
  5. wisdom (panna).

Five Things hindering the mind from making right exertion

  1. doubts about the Buddha;
  2. doubts about the Dhamma;
  3. doubts about the Sangha;
  4. doubts about the three Sikkha (sila, samadhi and panna);
  5. ill-will towards his fellow monks and companions.


The Six Rays of the Buddha (chabbannaramsi)are:

  1. rays of dark blue colour, nila;
  2. rays of yellow colour, pita;
  3. rays of red colour, lohita;
  4. rays of white colour, odata;
  5. rays of dark red colour, manjittha; and
  6. glittering rays of a mixture of the above five colours, pabhassara.

The six super-normal or higher Powers -Abhinnas

  1. Supernormal Powers or magical powers for producing miracles(Iddhividha)
  2. The Divine Ear like that of the devas(Dibba-sota)
  3. Power to read the minds of others (ceto-pariya-nana)
  4. Knowledge of Former existences( Pubbe-nivasanussati)
  5. The Divine Eye (Dibba-cakkhu)
  6. Higher psychic power which can eradicate defilements (Asavakkhaya)
Six Planes or Abodes of Celestial Beings (Deva loka)
  1. Catumaharajika
  2. Tavatimsa
  3. Yama
  4. Tusita
  5. Nimmanarati
  6. Paranimmita-vasavati

The six hindrances nivarana :

They prevent the arising of good thoughts and good deeds, jhanas and maggas.

  1. Kamacchanda; sensual desire,
  2. Byapada; ill will,
  3. Thina middha; sloth and torpor,
  4. Uddhacca kukkucca; restlessness and worry,
  5. Vicikiccha; doubt, and
  6. Avijjaaignorance of the Ariya Truths,

Six kinds of words :(The Buddha rejected No. 1 to No. 4; No. 5 and No. 6 were accepted)

  1. Words that are untrue, unpleasing, unbeneficial.
  2. Words that are untrue, pleasing, unbeneficial.
  3. Words that are true, unpleasing, unbeneficial
  4. Words that are true, pleasing, unbeneficial
  5. Words that are true, unpleasing, beneficial.
  6. Words that are true, pleasing, beneficial.

Six everlasting charity (Tharavapunna)

  1. Setting up gardens and orchards for public use
  2. Planting shady trees and fruit trees for public use
  3. Building roads and bridges for public use
  4. Providing drinking water at the wayside
  5. Constructing wells, tanks and ditches as means of public water supply
  6. Donation of monastic dwellings, etc.

Six qualities of the law (Dhamma)

  1. well-proclaimed by the Blessed One (svakkhato);
  2. visible here and now (sanditthiko);
  3. not delayed and timeless (akaliko);
  4. inviting inspectioin (ehipassiko);
  5. onward-leading (opaneyyiko);
  6. directly experienceable by the wise (paccatam veditabbo vinnuhi).

Seven Anusayas(Latent Defilements)

They are the seeds of potentiality of defilements

  1. Ditthanusaya, false view of mind and body.
  2. Vicikicchanusaya,sceptical doubts about the Buddha, Dhamrna and Samgha
  3. Kamaraganusaya, attachment to sensual pleasures.
  4. Patighanusaya, ill-will hatred and anger.
  5. Mananusaya, Conceit/ pride
  6. Bhavaraganusaya, attachment to rebirth as a brahma/ attachment to rupa and arupa jhanas and the existence in rupa and arupa planes/ craving for continued existence
  7. Avijjanusaya, not knowing the Four Ariya Truths, namely, (a) dukkha (rebirth, old age, disease, death, tribulation, grief, separation from dear ones, etc.), (b) samudaya (cause of dukkha), Cc) nirodha (end of dukkha), (d) rnagga (path to the end of dukkha).
Seven Universal Mental States ( (Sabbacittasadharana):)
contact (phassa);
feeling (vedanta);
perception (sanna),
volition (cetana);
one-pointedness (ekaggata);
psychic life or vitality (jivitindriya);
attention (manasikara).
Seven factors of Enlightenment (bojjhanga)
  1. Sati Sambojjhan: Mindfulness
  2. Dhammavicaya Sambojjhan: Vipassana wisdom analysig anicca, Dukkha and Anatta
  3. Viriya Sambojjhan: Energy
  4. Piti Sambojjhan: Rapture due to progress of Insight
  5. Passaddhi Sambojjhan: Tranquility at stage of Udayabbaya Nana
  6. Samadhi Sambojjhan: Concentration
  7. Upekkha Sambojjhan: Equanimity

Seven Days of the Week with special reference to the Buddha

  1. Monday, Full Moon Day of Waso: Renunciation by the Bodhisatta, Prince Siddhattha, at the age of 29.
  2. Tuesday, Full Moon Day of Kason: Parinibbana of the Buddha at the age of 80 in 543 B.C.
  3. Wednesday, Full Moon Day of Kason: The Bodhisatta attained Enlightenment at the age of 35 in 588 B.C.
  4. Thursday, Full Moon Day of Waso: Conception of the Bodhisatta.
  5. Friday, Full Moon Day of Kason: The Bodhisatta was born in 623 B.C.
  6. Saturday, Full Moon Day of Waso: Buddha preached the first discourse, Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta to the five ascetics.
  7. Sunday, New Moon Day of Kason: The Buddha's body was cremated.

Seven Qualities of an Ariya;

  1. rich in faith (saddha dhana);
  2. morality (sila dhana);
  3. concientiousneus (hiri dhana)
  4. fear of blame (ottappa dhana);
  5. quality of listening (suta dhana))
  6. generosity (caga dhana);
  7. wisdom (panna dhana).


Eight Constituents of the Path, Eightfold Path, Noble Ariya Atthangika Magga, (magganga)

right understanding (samma ditthi);
right thought (samma sankappa),
right speech (samma vaca;
right action (samma kammanta);
right livelihood (samma ajiva);
right effort (samma vayama);
right mindfulness (samma sati);
right concentration (samma samadhi).

Eight Precepts

1. Panatipata veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami I undertake the precept to refrain from killing living beings.
2. Adinnadana veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami I undertake the precept to refrain from taking that which is not given. (Stealing)
3. Abrahmacariya veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami I undertake the precept to refrain from any sexual activity.
4. Musavada veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami I undertake the precept to refrain from telling lies.
5. Suramerayamajja pamadatthana veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami I undertake the precept to refrain from intoxicating drinks and drugs which lead to carelessness.
6. Vikalabhojana veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami I undertake the precept to refrain from eating after noon. (i.e., after 12 noon; Exceptions if needed: honey, molasses, liquid sugars, oil and butter).
7. Nacca-gita-vadita-visukkadassana mala-gandha-vilepana-dharana-mandana-vibhusanathana veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami I undertake the precept to refrain from dancing, singing, music, going to see entertainments, wearing garlands, using perfumes, jewellery, and beautifying the body with cosmetics.
8. Uccasayana-mahasayana veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami I undertake the precept to refrain from lying on a high or luxurious sleeping place.

Eight qualities of a good friend (Kalyanamitta)

endowed with faith (saddha sampanna);
endowed with virtue (sila sampanna);
endowed with learning (suta sampanna);
endowed with generosity (caga sampanna),
endowed with effort (viriya sampanna);
endowed with mindfulness (sati sampanna);
endowed with concentration (samadhi sampanna);
endowed with wisdom (panna sampanna).

Eight kind of madness(Ummattaka)

frenzied with lust (kamummattaka);
frenzied with hate (kodhummattaka);
frenzied with wrong view (ditthummataka);
frenzied with infatuation (mohummattaka);
driven mad by yakkhas or demoniacal possession (yakkhummattaka),
mad from organic disorders (pittummattaka);
frenzied with intoxicants (surummattaka);
maddened by misfortune (uyasanummattaka).

The Eight Atthakkhanas (Inopportune Times)

  1. Being born in the Hell/ Niraya
  2. Being born as animals
  3. Being born as petas
  4. Being born as Asaannatta-brahamas and Arupa-brahamas.
  5. Being born as a human being in the remote part of a country which can not be reached by Buddha and his disciples.
  6. Being born as a human being having the wrong view during the time of the Buddha and his Teachings.
  7. Being born as a human being with no intellingence to understand the teachings of the Buddha.
  8. Being born as a human being with adequate intellingence to understand the teachings of the Buddha but not in the time of the Buddha.

Eight different places of Niraya Realm ( Hell, devoid of happiness )

  1. Sanjiva
  2. Kalasutta
  3. Sanghata
  4. Roruva
  5. Maharoruva
  6. Tapana
  7. Mahatapana
  8. Avici


Nine benefits of Satipatthana Practice

mental piuification;
overcoming of sorrow (soka);
overcoming of lamentation (parideva);
overcoming of physical pain (kayika dukkha);
overcoming of grief (domanassa);
overcoming of defilements (kilesa);
detachment (viveka);
freedom (pamokkha);
liberation (vimokkha).


Ten Akusala Kammapathas
: Paths to evil or demerit

3 bodily actions:

  1. Killing
  2. Stealing
  3. Commiting Adultery and taking Intoxicants

4 verbal actions:

  1. Telling lies
  2. Setting one against others (slandering)
  3. Using rough and abusive words (rude speech)
  4. Indulging in unbeneficial speech

3 mental actions:

  1. Belief in false theoris
  2. Ill will
  3. Covetousness

Ten Armies of Mara

  1. sensuous pleasures (kama);
  2. dissatisfaction (arati);
  3. hunger and thirst (khuppassa);
  4. craving (tanha);
  5. sloth and torpor (thina middha);
  6. fear (bhiru);
  7. doubt (vicikkicha);
  8. hypocrisy and obstinacy (makkha and thambha);
  9. gain, fame and reverence (labha, siloka and sakkara);
  10. self-exaltation and disparaging others (attukkamsana and paravambhana)

Ten Impermissible Meat (Akappiyamamsa)
Ten kinds of impermissible meats for the monks

The Flesh of elephant, horse, human, tiger, lion, leopard, bear, yak, dog and snake

Ten kinds of mind-defiling factors (Kilesas) have been enumerated as:

  1. greed , lobha;
  2. hatred, dosa;
  3. bewilderment, moha;
  4. conceit, mana;
  5. wrong view, ditthi;
  6. doubt, vicikiccha;
  7. mental torpor, thina;
  8. restlessness, uddhacca;
  9. shamelessness (to do evil), ahirika; and
  10. not fearing (to do evil), anottappa.

Ten kusala Kammapathas
: tenfold wholesome course of action

3 bodily actions:

  1. avoidance of Killing
  2. avoidance of Stealing
  3. avoidance of unlawful sexual intercourse

4 verbal actions:

  1. avoidance of lying
  2. avoidance of slandering
  3. avoidance of rude speech
  4. avoidance of unbeneficial speech

3 mental actions:

  1. right views
  2. good-will
  3. unselfishness,

Ten Meritorious Deeds(Punnakiriya vatthu)

  1. Generosity or charity , dana
  2. Morality or good moral conduct, sila
  3. Meditation, bhavana
  4. Paying due respect to those who are worthy of it, apacayana
  5. Helping others perform good deeds, veyyavacca
  6. Sharing of merit after doing some good deed, pattidana
  7. Rejoicing at others merit - making, pattanumodana
  8. Listening well to the Doctrine, dhammassavana
  9. Teaching the Doctrine, dhammadesana
  10. Straightening one's views, ditthizukammma.

Ten Samyojanas or Fetters
Bonds or fetters binding all beings to the wheel of existence.

(i) sakkaya ditthi: belief in atta or soul; ego illusion; the view that the body and mind is "myself".

(ii) vicikiccha. doubt or wavering concerning the Buddha's Enlightenment, his Teaching, and his Order.

(iii)silabbataparamasa: the belief that there are practices and paths other than the Ariya Path of Eight Constituents, that can liberate one from dukkha.

(iv) kamaraga: sensual desire; attachment to and satisfaction in sensual objects such as colours, shapes, sounds, odours, tastes, tactual objects.

(v)patigha: ill will, including feelings of hatred, anger, resentment, revulsion, dissatisfaction, aversion, annoyance, disappointment.

(vi) ruparaga:(a) craving for existence in the Fine- Material (Brahma) realms; (b) desire for the bliss, the tranquillity, the attractive flavour or the various stages of concentration on forms, or colours, or materiality.

(vii) aruparaga: (a) craving for existence in the Formless (i.e., with only mind and no body) (Brahma) realms; (b) desire for the bliss, the tranquillity, the attractive flavour of full concentration on objects other than forms, such as space or Consciousness or emptiness.

(viii) mana: pride, awareness of superiority or inferiority; the illusion of having this or that status relative to one another.

(ix) uddhacca: restlessness; agitation; mental unrest, distraction, lack of peace and quiet (arising from curiosity, inquisitiveness).

(x) Avijja:Ignorance, lack of correct knowledge as to the nature of existence, it is the main root of dukkha and of rebirth.


Eleven Advantages of Metta Bhavana

sleeps well (sukham supati);
wakes in comfort (sukham patzbujjhati,
dreams no evil dreams (na papakam supinam passati,
dear to and beloved by human beings (manussanam piyo hoti);
dear to and beloved by non-human beings (amanussanam piyo hoti;
deities guard him (devata rakkhanti;
not affected by fire, poison and weapons (nassa aggi va visam va sattham va kamati;
mind easily concentrated (tuva tam cittam samadhiyati);
serene facial expression (mukhavanno vippasidati).
dies unconfused (assammutho kalam karoti},
reappears in Brahma world (uttarim appativijjhanto Brahmalokupago hoti)


Twelve kinds of Bhikkhu

  1. 1-4: four persons who attain the realization of Magga (Path);
  2. 5-8: four persons who attain the realization of Phala (Fruit);
  3. 9-12: four persons who are striving through Vipassana Meditation to attain the four stages of realization.

Twelve 'bases' or 'sources' on which depend the mental processes (Ayatanas)

  1. six personal (ajjhattika) bases=five physical sense-organs + consciousness
  2. six external (bahira) bases or objects=five physical sense-consciousness, such as 1. eye, or visual organ visible object, 2. ear, or auditory organ sound, or audible object, 3. nose, or olfactory organ odour, or olfactive object , 4. tongue, or gustatory organ taste, or gustative object, 5. body, or tactile organ body-impression, or tactile object and 6. mind-base, or consciousness mind-object (manayatana) (dhammayatana)


13 dhutangas or strict observances

  1. wearing patched-up robes
  2. wearing only three robes
  3. going for alms
  4. not omitting any house whilst going for alms
  5. eating at one sitting
  6. eating only from the alms-bowl
  7. refusing all further food
  8. living in the forest
  9. living under a tree
  10. living in the open air
  11. living in a cemetery
  12. being satisfied with whatever dwelling
  13. sleeping in the sitting position (and never lying down)


18 physical and mental elements that constitute the process of perception

  1. visual organ (eye)
  2. auditory organ (ear)
  3. olfactory organ (nose)
  4. gustatory organ (tongue)
  5. tactile organ (body)
  6. visible object
  7. sound or audible object
  8. odour or olfactive object
  9. gustative object
  10. body-impression
  11. eye-consciousness
  12. ear-consciousness
  13. nose-consciousness
  14. tongue-consciousness
  15. body-consciousness
  16. mind-element (mano-dhatu)
  17. mind-object (dhamma-dhatu)
  18. mind-consciousness-element (mano-vinnana-dhatu)


Thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma : dhamma which should be attempted with energy and determination

The Four Satipatthana

The Four Sammappadhana

The Four Iddhipadas

The Five Indriya

The Five Bala (or Balani)

The Seven Sambojjhanga

The Eight Magganga

Ref: Bodhipakkhiya Dipani, The Manual of The Factors Leading to Enlightenment IV, The Four Iddhipadda by Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw, Aggamahapandita, D.Litt.


"DHAMMA RATANA", Vol. 1, Ashin Kundalabhivamsa, 1998

"On the Path to Freedom", By Sayadaw U Pandita, 1995

"The Teachings of the Buddha", the Ministry of Religious Affairs, Myanmar, 1997

"Ten Suttas from Digha Nikaya", Burma Pitaka Association, Rangoon, 1984

"A Dictionary of Buddhist Terms", Ministry of Religious Affairs, Myanmar, 1996



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