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'Pyone thay, Mei thay'
A Talk by Mogok Sayadaw

Translated by Ehi Passiko
(U Sway Tin, D.S.C)
August 2000

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Mogok Yeiktha, Yangon


      Many well-wishers have suggested that an attempt be made to write simply. We do wish that such a simple request could be satisfied somehow. Our people in everyday conversation are using some of the Pali words, as they have somehow become assimilated in our Myanmar conversational language. On the other hand, we are constrained to translate those actual words of our eminent Teacher, in such a way that there is no question as to their authenticity. For that reason, only the latter part of the explanations of the Buddha's lecture to Za-nu-so-ni, the Brahmin, (a member of the priestly Hindu caste), has been paraphrased.

      The original lecture (Sermon) has been made by our most Venerated The Mogok Sayadaw, Aggamahapandita, in the simplest of our Myanmar terms, in ordinary conversational style at its common level for their first understanding. It is therefore unfortunate that this writer is yet not able to make a radical change from the everyday conversational style of the original tape recordings.

      However, it is the intention of the translator to re-edit his present work later to fulfill such a request of our readers, by adding explanations in footnotes. With a Glossary of some of the Pali words in common usage, the next edition may meet the previously mentioned needs. For the present, we are sure that anyone of our own bilingual well wishers will be more than happy to explain everything, if the original booklet, published under the title of 'Pyone thay, Mei thay' (used for a major portion of this translation) is at hand. For such an eventuality, we would suggest to the Reader, to acquire a copy of the original Myanmar language texts as well for easy reference, when working with a knowledgeable friend. included in the present work is supportive information in footnotes. Finally, to correct the impression that Buddhism is pessimistic, the title translation for the applicable half of the original Myanmar name has been chosen. (U Sway Tin, the Translator.)

      [ Through this translation of Buddhist teaching sermon, despite constant promptings from the Microsoft WORD program to avoid the 'passive voice' approach, the translator has been trying to steer away from the Sakkaya ditthi (the wrong concept of "I") whenever possible for the sole benefit of the reader and meditator.]

Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Samma Sambuddha

Veneration to Him, the Most Exalted and Purified, the Supremely Enlightened Buddha
Honour to the Exalted One, Arahat, Buddha Supreme.

      Universally, Buddhists all over the world know and recite the above, making it a part of their daily prayers. It is the shortest form of prayer in the broadest sense of the word to be directed to our Lord Buddha. no favours being asked.

      The most venerable Maha Thera, the Mogok Sayadaw, Agamahapandita, delivered the following sermon at Mingala Monastery, Amarapura (Upper Myanmar) on 27-ll-1960.* This sermon was recorded on magnetic tape and later transcribed and printed in book form, together with other sermons of the series. Also this sermon, has been reprinted in booklet form, and is now translated in its entirety, at the behest of the publisher by U Sway Tin, beginning January 8, 1997 at Yangon. Only the last portion of the sermons has been paraphrased without audience responses. we may consider the following title for a more positive approach:


      Thus have I heard:

      Our Benefactor Lord Buddha was addressed by one Punna (Brahmin) Za-nu-so-ni. Zanusoni Brahmin asked Lord Buddha:

      "Ashin Phaya (My Lord, he said) Of all the people that I have ever met, if I am to report of my own humble conclusions, at my level of intelligence, (I find that) there has never been any individual who is unafraid and not alarmed at the prospect of death, Oh Buddha", thus he reported. "It is so, Sir" (Responded the listening audience in unison.)

      (Such audience responses are usually found to be distracting, when listening either to the tape recordings or while reading the transcripts of those tapes. Most intellectuals are that way inclined, and get to be impatient. They wish to get to the end of any message, instead of, what they consider to be, "beating around the bush". western readers also just want everything to be presented, already "cut and dried", so they could read and evaluate everything on their own.

      Our Mogok Sayadaw's manner of teaching has been in the example of one Arahat, named Shin Nandaka (Shin =Venerable), during the lifetime of our Lord Buddha. After the Bhikkhuni(s) had been admitted to the Order, on their compliance with a strict code of behavior, some accomplished Bhikkhu(s) were assigned the duty of teaching them, taking their turns. Many weeks had gone by. Yet, for a long time, this Shin Nandaka always managed, somehow, to be unavailable to teach these Bhikkhuni(s), whenever it was his turn to instruct them. Eventually this was reported to the Buddha.

      The Buddha, who alone had the ability of fully gauging and understanding their (bhikkhunis') tendencies, their standard of development, their mental make-up and their capacity to understand a particular question, also knew of their past relationships. This special knowledge of the Buddha is termed indriya paropariyatta nana.

      Therefore, on that particular day, the Buddha assigned Shin Nandaka to teach those (500 or so) Bhikkhuni(s). He must have shocked the bhikkhuni(s) with his direct approach. "Listen carefully. I am going to talk to you. you will respond to my questions. you will repeat some of my words, together. you are to finish sentences, if I should pause anywhere. I wish to hear all of you answering" By such repetitive and self-supportive responses, mass education of these Bhikkhuni(s) had proven to be most effective then. **

      {Such audience responses to Mogok Sayadaw's sermons have been faithfully reproduced in this translation even at the risk of similarly distracting reader attention. However, after page 13, the concluding portion of the Sermon has been paraphrased for concise understanding of the readers of the west, who may yet be unfamiliar with either the Myanmar or Myanmar-Pali usage in the original text - Translator}

      * This translation is of a booklet in Myanmar, entitled "Pyone thay - mei thay : thay nee thiin " literally to be translated as 'How to die with a smile.'

     ** This excerpt from another sermon of Mogok Sayadaw has been included here, particularly for this work, considering that it is relevant, for this first volunteered writing assignment from the President, U Aung Kyaw, of the Society for the Propagation of Vipassana (Mogok Sayadaw's Way), 82 Natmauk Road, Yangon, Myanmar.

      "Zanusoni Brahma so reported... "It's so true, Sir!

To my understanding and in my own observation, if I am to report, there is no one who is not afraid of dying, or unalarmed of death. This is my belief, Sir."

      It is then that our Lord and Benefactor, the Most Exalted Buddha said: "Punna! Zanusoni Brahmin, do not conclude in that manner. There are those who are afraid of death. And there are those who are not afraid of death. There are these two kinds of persons you must take note of." "It's so true, Sir "

      "The individual who is afraid of dying is of one kind. The individual who is unafraid of dying... " "Is the other kind, Sir"

      "How many kind?" "Two kinds, Sir"

      "This phongyi's Tagar, Tagama, (bhikkhu's male and female disciples), all, mark this well!

      "This sermon is based on the Brahmin's statement he made to our Lord Buddha that has brought forth these questions and answers. This fact as noted by Taga, Tagama, all, is relevant to everyone and is to be remembered as having that intended meaning." "Too true, Sir"

      "When it is said that this is relevant to everyone, Taga Tagama, all, From the beginning moment of conception all of us have been hastening forth, from Just which town, which place, is just a way of conventional expression, remember that." "Yes, it is so, Sir"

      "(We are all) hastening towards the place (and time) of our deaths, and that is a certainty."

      "When you get to that town, you are nearer to (the time of) your death." "Too true, Sir"

      "Then, when you continued running to reach this town" "(We get) nearer to the time of (our) deaths, Sir"

      "It means that (everyone) is running (literally) on the path that is leading to the cemetery, can (we all) say: ' that is so'?" "We can, indeed, say so, Sir"

      "Since you have decided that we are all running on the path that is leading us all to the cemetery, we can say conclusively that you are (also) listening to this sermon, while going to the cemetery, your teacher Phongyi (Bhikkhu) is reminding you! "So true, Sir"

      "The Buddha has also chastised you so." "So true, Sir"

      "Nearer now to the cemetery than when (you) first arrived to sit here, is not that certain?" "Most certain, Sir"

      "All of this, Taga U Hla Bu and all, Taga Kywe and all, Taga Thike and all, we all can (agree and) say that even while sitting (still) we are surely going to that (final) Place." "All going there, Sir"

      "Even while sitting, (here) we are going!" "All going there"

      "If when you are (lying down) sleeping" "Going while sleeping, Sir"

      "If when you are eating (a meal)" "Going while eating a meal, Sir"

      "If while you are speaking" "Going while talking, Sir"

      "Oh! in that case, Taga, Tagama, all, everything else may err or deviate" "So true, Sir"

      "This (inevitable and universal) process of heading for the cemetery, there is no chance for it to err or deviate" "None at all, Sir"

      "Only it gets closer and closer, that has got to be certain" "It is certain, Sir"

      "Can we not say that?" "We can say that, Sir"

      "Only when the Taga, Tagama, all, do most carefully contemplate all of this in your minds, Oh! Reborn in new existence, again the same race down the same Path" "Running along same path, Sir"

      "Eh! Again reborn in yet another, a third existence, again" "Running along same path, Sir"

      "In that case, the reason we have this (inescapable) task of having to run along the same path is because we are indeed all objects of Vutta.*** " "It is so true, Sir."

      *** as in Vipaka Vutta(s) ; Vipaka- if taken in a sense of a retributive resultant - Vutta(s) must be ill-fated 'Beings'. In this sense 'all Beings' are the retributive resultants of past kamma deeds, actions, etc.

      "Because one has Vutta is the reason for one (having) to keep running on this same path. "Has to keep running, Sir."

      "The person who is freed of Vutta do not run on such a path." "Do not run, Sir."

      "That is why, Taga Tagama, all, all have been lamenting that, after old age, all will have to die." "So true!"

      "Then, a little later in the next rebirth, also again to face old age, And again to die." "So true!"

      "Only this kind of lamenting, Taga, Tagama all; none ever seeking The fork in the path, (to escape). "Do not search. Sir."

      "Even so, U Hla Bu and all, Taga Kywe and all, you have to Consider 'Oh! An unknowing person searching (aimlessly) will More than likely be distancing himself, could it not be so?" "Yes, it would be so."

      "Now, then in that case, Taga, Tagama all, when Brahmin Zanusoni asserted that 'everyone is afraid of death, with no exception', Our Lord Buddha Told him,' there is one kind of person who is afraid, and there is another kind of person who is unafraid' (of death)." "So (The Buddha) said."

      "In that case (that being so), though both are heading for the Village of death." - Meaning the cemetery - (one kind) going while afraid, (and another kind) without fear, Bravely going forth. Two kinds, there are, (now) the meaning has become clear!" "It has become clear, Sir"

      "In that case, (the Punna said), since the belief that I have of everyone being afraid of death, and you, Lord Buddha has said that there is yet another kind who is unafraid of dying; please will you (kindly) explain." "Should he not make that request?" "He should so ask, Sir!"

      "Aye! This sermon has been so initiated, Taga, Tagama all, Our Lord Buddha, Wanted, including (this) teacher Phongyi (monk), to show the alternate path, As well as (way of) completing the task, (how) to be unafraid of dying; (we have) thus begun with (this account) from Anguttara Pali Texts" "So true, Sir"

      'This group of Taga, Tagama, altogether, should assuredly know to what level of achievement they should attain, in order that they, (too), would no longer be afraid of dying nor of death - that being the objective - U Hla Bu, (that's why) I am telling (you) "So true, Sir."

      "That is why, Taga, Tagama, all, this sermon has to be. Oh! we are indeed Going along this path, and to be of the kind of person who is unafraid and who is yet going forth (regardless), what form of reliance can we have so that we, too, will be unafraid? The fact that it would indeed be (unthinkable) to have to go (whilst) afraid and scared. This, too, would become clear." "It has become clear. Sir"

      "That is why, Taga, Tagama, all, beginning (starting) with this preacher and ending with the last of those listening to this sermon, no one can escape the (inevitable) passage, this path of death." "So true, Sir"

      "Is there any escape?" "No escape, Sir"

      "Then, knowing there is no escape (whatsoever) Oh! Let us separate and consider the two - death while scared, and death without fear" "Yes, Sir"

      "The Buddha has revealed that there are four kinds of individuals who will go to their deaths (while yet) afraid" "So true, Sir"

      "Punna, Brahmin", Lord Buddha said, "there are four kinds of individuals who are afraid. And there are four kinds of individuals who are unafraid." "Those are afraid." "There are four kinds"

      "Those who are unafraid" "There are four kinds"

      "We must be resolved to be included in that lot of the four kinds of individuals who are unafraid; and must be most determined to be so included" "So true, Sir"

      "To be included in the lot of four kinds of individuals who are unafraid, all of the attendees who have come to this Dhamma meeting (tayar-pwe), if you are resolved to Achieve this objective, you must today be strong willed, resolute, lofty-minded and absolutely Determined" "So very true, Sir"

      "It will never do if you do not have that kind of resolve, Taga Kywe,. .Yes!" "Yes, Sir"

      "How can anyone have a good existence if one remains afraid of the journey." "Cannot be good, Sir"

      "One who has become unafraid of the journey will, if reborn again, surely again (be reborn in) an existence of ease and tranquillity (peace)." "So true, Sir"

      "Cannot we say that?" "It can be so said, Sir"

      "Aye! that is why the four kinds of individuals who are afraid will be shown (but) first." "So true, Sir"

      "The four kinds of individuals who are afraid are those that are indicated in Anguttara Nikaya, Catukka-nipata" "So true, Sir"

      "What kind of individual is afraid, (let's consider): Number 1; mark well, Taga, Tagama all:

      1. "Those people who are totally absorbed (preoccupied) with their sons, daughters and their Possessions, and are deeply attached to them, When they are mortally afflicted and are facing imminent death, they are confronted with an agonising prospect of having to part with The loved ones and their possessions" "So true, Sir"

      "In his thoughts, does he have the wish to die?" "Does not have, Sir"

      "Is he then, unafraid of dying?" "He is afraid!"

      "Oh Why is he so afraid of dying when we look for a reason, (we find) the reason - (he) does not wish to part with his children and his possessions; and these thoughts are so agonisingly pronounced in him that he suffers great qualms about parting with them and he becomes (frightened) afraid. "So true, Sir"

      "This frightening experience becomes Domanasa" (mental pain) "So true, Sir"

      "When death is imminent, does not anger then arise, (too)? "It comes, Sir"

      "Thus, first dosa (anger) arises, Soka (sorrow) follows. "It follows, Sir"

      "After Soka arises, Parideva (lamentation, (and) Upayasa (despair) then arise " "Also arise, Sir"

      "Does (these) things not follow?" (Repeated twice) "They follow, Sir" "They follow, Sir"

      "Eh! If (you) ask, "Why does these arise in this individual?' The thing called "Maranampi - Dukkha Sacca" is not known (to this individual); Because he does not know... Eh...these...thoughts of (his) children, (his) possessions, ...Eh...is (indeed) Dukkha Sacca (The truth of Dukkha) after all! Not knowing that these are, in fact, Dukkha, he had formed (an) attachment to them" "So true, Sir"

      "Because, in ignorance (he) had formed attachment (to these), when Vedana (Physical and mental feelings) becomes intense and overwhelming, because of these, Eh...because they are Dukkha (pain sufferings) - Domanasa (mental pain) arise - Soka (sorrow) - Parideva (lamentation) [Upayasa (despair)] thus, the whole mass of sufferings thus arise. Does not these happen so? "They do happen, Sir"

      "Let us say, this individual dies after experiencing all of these things" "So true, Sir"

      "Does not this individual's last consciousness has been affected by these?" "Yes, Sir."

      "On this side Dukkha - Dosa - Domanasa - Soka - Parideva - Upayasa. Did they not arise?" "They do, Sir"

      (In this lifetime, suffering, anger, grief, sorrow, lamentation, despair in several levels of mental and physical agony arising)

      "When Rebirth consciousness arise and death ends this individual's present existence, ... Eh! Sons and daughters (children offsprings) are (but) Dukkha Sacca (!) - they are but the truth of Dukkha, after all; that they are but "Anicca, Dukkha, Anatta. Anatta (impermanent), Dukkha (suffering) and Anatta (non-self), after all; They are the real truths of Dukkha" 'Did these truths occur to this individual when he experienced (the qualms) of anxiety, mental and physical sufferings, and Dukkha Anger, or because he never had any such (prior) knowledge?" "Because he did not know, Sir."

      "When these (undesirables) arise, in his (rebirth) consciousness, there also comes Avijja, (Ignorance of the Four noble Truths, but the knowing of all the wrong kinds of knowledge) Don't these come, too?" "They do, Sir"

      "For such an individual, when Avijja is present, and he is approaching his death, Taga, Tagama, all, in his mind 3 (consciousness), with all of those (death throes also present). (Buddhist concept of "Consciousness" is not as defined in Western Dictionary, see other relevant Footnotes.) He is further carried away into committing also kaya-kan; vici-kan (bodily actions; vocal actions), thereby begins the (clearly discernible) signs of physical action (gestures), as well as audibly voicing (this or that) matters of his immediate concerns. Does not these come (happen) then?" "They do, Sir"

      "Such bodily actions and vocal actions being done in this existence, and then the individual, in dying, - Taga, Tagama all,... Eh... because (of his) obsessions about (his) children and (his) Possessions give effect to .. rebirth consciousness of existence in some form of (peta or animal life). Does it not so happen? " "Have to say thus, Sir"

      "Eh... this individual, (knowing his fate) and nearing death, must be one of those who (at death) are afraid" "So true, Sir"

      "His final thoughts and prospect of having to part with children, with property; to be separated from them, the prospect of this being the last such relationship with them, all of These being so frightening an experience, Taga, Tagama all, upon death, a new rebirth. Consciousness arises in the Peta (world of lower form of life)... "So true, Sir."

      "That is why, the individual who dies frightened. To where does (he or it) Revert to? " "Switched over to Peta (animal) state, Sir"

      "This being so, to what state of existence does an individual who dies frightened switched over to..." "Towards Peta state, Sir"

      "If towards the state of Peta, doesn't the re-birth consciousness of Peta arise (Upon death of that individual)? "It does, Sir"

      "After death occurs (instantaneously) 'rebirth consciousness' will arise "It will have to, Sir"

      "Does it not come?" "It comes. Sir"

      "Just go ahead and ask, from where does that (individual's) fear of death arise? "The increasing agony of vedana (feelings) and (him) not wishing to part with own children and possessions, and the knowledge that it is futile to wish otherwise, the (prospect of death) becomes most frightening" "Frightening, Sir"

      "When so afraid, soka (sorrow/anxiety), pariveda (lamentations while suffering mentally and physically), Dukkha (sufferings), Domanasa (mental grief and anguish) also arise in such a person and, when such (things) arise. Does he not have to put up with the wrong kinds of kaya-kan or kaya kamma (bodily actions) vici-kan, or vici kamma (vocal actions)? [He cannot remain calm nor silent]

      "Have to stay with [such actions]

      "When with and due to these actions, will not Peta-zati come (arise)?" "Will come, Sir"

      "Are you satisfied (with the explanations)?" "Satisfied, Sir"

      "Eh.... Death with fright is indeed bad!" "Indeed so bad, Sir"

      "Is it clear?" "It's clear. Sir"

      "That individual who is afraid, Taga, Tagama, all when faced with the Thoughts and prospect of parting with son, daughter and possessions and the agonising feelings are on the increase, he is (of course) frightened." "Is afraid, Sir"

      "When so frightened, soka (sorrow/anxiety), parideva (lamentation) dukkha (suffering), domanasa (grief and anguish), do they not come? "They come, Sir"

      "When they so arise (come), bodily action, vocal actions can they be Good? "Cannot be good, Sir"

      "When they are not good, and dying with these (bad) actions, Kamma bhava paccaya peta zati (because of such mundane actions) animal existence comes to be" (Pali quoted from the Buddhist Doctrine Paticcasamuppada - Doctrine of Dependent Origination, or Conditioned Genesis, with slight changes! "So true, Sir"

      "Then, summarising for (your) information:

      "The individual who has been engrossed with (such ordinary mundane obsessions), thoughts of (own) children, possessions; and having no concept of mindfulness meditation, nor of Buddha's noble Sacca Truths, (he or she) thinking that they are stable and lasting, holds on to such wrong beliefs, which (he or she) is unable to discard and because of this, when approaching death 'consciousness of fear' arises. "When this 'consciousness of fear' arises, and Vedana (physical and mental feelings) becomes intense and agonising (unbearable), fearsome thoughts which are (if asked) soka (sorrow), parideva (grief), dukkha (pain suffering), domanassa (grief), .. (All arise) " "So true, Sir"

      "Are you satisfied" "Yes, Sir"

      "Then these Soka, Parideva, Dukkha, Domanassa "Tayaar" (with this whole mass of suffering) and his (or her) bodily actions, vocal actions in the form of gestures and words of instructions or expressions of wishes... are they fit and proper (at that time and state)? "They are not good, Sir"

      "Are they not intimate and amiable words (by nature) then?" "Happening to be so, Sir"

      "In that case, those bodily actions and verbal actions being inappropriate (impious) Actions, Kamma bavapacciya Peta-zati (causal chain of Conditioned Genesis: Through volitional (impious) actions, there arise consciousness of rebirth as animal (Right then and there). "So it happens, Sir"

      "Is it not frightening?" "It is so, Sir"

      "Eh! For (easy) remembering, (we) can briefly summarise that by being Obsessed with (one's own) children and possessions, that (individual) died (only-totally) afraid. in this way remember that with such obsessions there will arise fear (of death): This is the Type 1 individual. "So very true, Sir"

      Type 2 individual

      "I will tell you about the second kind of person, Punna. Just you remember! Said our Lord Buddha. Those who are so obsessed with their own person, when he is facing death and knowing that he will have to part with that body, completely (and absolutely) in him fear also arises" "So true, Sir"

      "Because he had been believing what is impermanent as permanent." "So it is, Sir"

      "Also such a person, who has been obsessed of his 'SELF ' and so loves his body, when experiencing agonisingly increasing feelings, and (realising) he is Approaching death, and is at death's door (itself), he, too, is afraid, (mark you!)"

      "Therefore, the person who loves his person will die while being afraid." "So true, Sir"

      "How many (such) persons, (have we now)? " "Two persons, Sir"

      "How about the person who loves his children and his possessions? "Dies being afraid, Sir"

      "Eh also the one who dies while so loving his body; there are now Two (kinds of) individuals" "So true, Sir"

      Type 3 individual.

      "In the third kind of individual, now As for this third individual, Taga, tagama, all, that to remember is (the individual) is (with) Lobha (greed), With Dosa (anger), with Moha (dullness, lack of understanding in philosophical matters) (participates in) selling, buying, and doing many forms of immoral activities, such individuals will not have practiced mindfulness meditation, nor able to perceive the khandha* with right understanding, nor able to discern and practice observing in (his) "Mind's eye" the phenomena of arising decay or (in other words)' the appearance disappearance' phenomena (termed) Anicca (Impermanence characteristics), Anatta (non-self characteristics), there has been absent all moral and meritorious merits."

     *khandha=relevant Consciousness (not as defined in an English Dictionary.)

      -on account of the eye and visible object, eye-consciousness arises (Phassa is the conjunction of the three);

      -on account of the ear and sound, ear-consciousness arises (Impression is the conjunction of the three);

      -on account of nose and odor, nose-consciousness arises (Impression is the conjunction of the three);

      -on account of tongue and taste, tongue consciousness arise (Impression is the conjunction of the three);

      -on account of the body and bodily impression, body-consciousness (Impression is the conjunction of the three);

      -on account of the mental element and mental object element, mind-consciousness arises (Impression etc. etc.).

      "So true, Sir"

      "When so deplete have all good and moral benefits (merits), in that individual hearingdeath and his agonising feelings (Vedana) become intense, (he thinks thus) 'Oh my! I have not earned (good) merits because I have neglected doing righteous acts, instead, have I wasted my time preoccupied with (unwholesome) useless deeds, matters concerning son's welfare, daughter's welfare, efforts to affect personal gains. I have now missed the opportunities for doing Vipassana (Mindfulness Meditation) - how have I postponed doing these and thought unimportant things to be more important! Realising the immensity of his misdeeds, his neglects, he is racked with great remorse. (At this point), because of the effect of these, he dies whilst afraid"

      "How many kinds have we reached (now)

      "Three kinds we now have, Sir"

      "Eh to such an individual, recalling (these) - all of the unmeritorious misdeeds;

      All of those useless idle pastimes; concerns for son's welfare, daughter's welfare, personal gains,

      And wasted times, wasted efforts in complying (with) Ruler's directives, and (all other) ineffectual wasting away of (his) lifespan, to this individual,

      (Mark you) U Hla Bu and all, Taga Kywe and all, he dies while being afraid"

      "So true, Sir"

      "Is this clear"

      "It's clear, Sir"

      "How many kinds have we (now)"

      "It's clear, Sir"

      "Three individuals we have, Sir"

      Type 4 individual

      "(Go ahead) add one more individual, Taga, Tagama, all, (now we have) the fourth: the Buddha said, 'there yet remains one more kind of individual'. If you ask 'which (kind)?' Taga, Tagama, all, Phongyi (Bhikkhu or monk) so teaches:

      "On that side Avijja- what happens because of Avijja (Ignorance of the Truths)..."    "Sankhara arises, -"

      "Because of Sankhara (Action - plannings, activities, "putting together" etc.)..."    "Vinnana (arises)"

      "Because of Vinnana (resultant rebirth-consciousness)..."    "Nama-Rupa, "

      "Nama-Rupa arises, what happens 'Because of Nama-Rupa..."    "Salayatana"

      "Because of Salayatana...' (Salayatana=the six sense-fields of sense organ and mind)     "Phassa"

      "Because of Phassa" (Contact)    "Vedana"

      "Eh Because of Vedana" (Sensation, Feeling, Perception of appropriate sense)    "Tanha arises"

      "Because of Tanha" (Craving)    "Upadana"

      "Because of Upadana" (Grasping)    "Kamma Bhava"

      "Kamma Bhava arises " (attainment of individuality)

      "Because of Kamma Bhava" (existence, becoming, attainment of individuality)    "Zati Sir"

      "Because of Zati" (birth, re-instatement of the khandhas or constituent aggregates)    "Jara-marana arises"

      "This individual did not know the 'Beginning' of Paticcasamuppada (the great Doctrine of Dependent Origination)" "So true, Sir"

      "Not knowing the beginning is Avijja (Ignorance - of the Four noble Truths etc.),

      Alas, he does not know..." "So true, Sir"

      "Not knowing the ending - not knowing Jara-marana (Decay and Death)" "So true, Sir"

     "Also, he does not know of the middle, (he says) he does not know the middle (part) of Paticcasamuppada " "So true "

      "The ending" "he did not know, Sir"

      "The beginning and the ending, — (how about) these two" "(he) did not know, Sir"

      "(It has been said) 'he did not know', in this way, the 'not knowing of Paticcasamuppada, Oh 'This thing - from where did (I) come and to where must (I) go?' (Perplexity enters) in his mind (of course!)" "So very true, Sir"

      "Nearing death, when agonising - pains (feelings) are increasing, (and a whole mass of suffering) is manifest, does not perplexity - Vicikiccha - arise, (too)?" "(it) does arise, Sir"

      "In that case, (it is) because Paticcasamuppada is not understood" "So true, Sir"

      " (For) those individuals who did not understand Paticcasamuppada, (they) would not know from whence they came and to where, upon (their) death, they (would?) go" "Did not know, Sir"

      "Not knowing, in his mind, 'not knowing' (being) Vicikiccha (perplexity) "So true, Sir"

      "In short, Vicikiccha (perplexity) is indeed Avijja (Ignorance - of the Truths),

      (Is this)? Satisfactory" "Satisfied, Sir"

      "This Avijja and ... Eh... Paticcasamuppada, not knowing (its) beginning, not knowing (its) ending, - (its) beginning - ending not known (of course!) In this way, also not believing in the Buddha, his Teaching, his Order, (that's) Buddha-Dhamma-Sangha (Of Course!) "So true, Sir"

      "Those (he) did not believe, (he) also did not know the beginning, nor also the ending of Paticcasamuppada, of course" ""

      "The individual who lives in this way, also U Ha Bu and all, Taga Kywe and all ... when nearing death, perplexity then arises" "So true, Sir"

      "Eh die he must, but not knowing where he would (end-up) (he is)

      (Of course) Afraid" "So true, Sir" "Die he must, (and) not knowing where he will (next) be, how does he feel? "

"      (He) is afraid, Sir"

      "Such individuals also, those who does not understand Paticcasamuppada also die whilst afraid (frightened) Hey"       "So true, Sir"

      "Now, for these here Taga, Tagama, all, having the understanding of Paticcasamuppada, everything is where it should be" "Yes, Sir"

      "Having that understanding, Eh ... when Avijja is present, Sankhara is bound to arise" So true, Sir"

      "When Sankhara is present" Vinnana arises, Sir"

      "When Vinnana is present" "Nama Rupa arises, Sir"

      "When Nama Rupa is present" "Salayatana arises,"

      "Well then let it rest with that. If the ultimate ending is sought, and Avijja is extinguished so.." "Sankhara is eradicated, Sir"

      "With Sankhara eradicated" " Vinnana is eradicated, Sir"

      "With Vinnana extinguished" "Nama Rupa (together) are extinguished, Sir"

      "Eh ... having knowledge of such extinguishing, Eh (now, take this) great Paticcasamuppada, when such a (profound) subject as Paticcasamuppada is (being considered), How can anyone who does not know how to meditate Vipassana (Mindfulness Meditation), U Hla Bu and all, Taga Kywe and all, get to know how (anyone) can break free of the link-up(s) that (perpetuates his bondage to rebirth cycle) ? " "Never can break free, Sir"

      "As for the individual who has (completed his task) doing mindfulness meditation, however, does he break free or not?" "Does break free, Sir"

      "Eh ... If (we consider) how this break-free can be known, Phassa Nirodho - Vedana Nirodho (of knowing when) Contact disappears - Feeling disappears" "So true, Sir"

      "Eh ... When Phassa (contact) is extinguished (eradicated) -" " Vedana is extinguished, Sir"

      "Eh ... Does not the Awareness of disappearance of Phassa leads to the disappearance (perishing) of Vedana so perceived..." "Knows so, Sir"

      "For that individual who has (achieved while meditating mindfulness) and known absolutely and singularly the Paticcasamuppada (truth of Conditionality) that Vedana (Feeling) is present, and arising intensely, Eh ... (contemplates and is aware (that) this Feeling is Contact-caused, ("so true, Sir")

      Does he not know. "Knows, Sir"

      "That being said, does not Vicikiccha (sceptical doubts) cease to be? " "It dies, Sir"

      "Is there Perplexity (wondering) 'from where (all of) these come-to-be?". "None, Sir"

      "Eh ... Vicikiccha has been extinguished" "True, Sir"

      "Eh ... does perplexity about wondering from where (and how) this (agonising) 'Feeling' arise, again in his mind? "Does not arise, Sir"

      "It does not arise! (But in the case of these Taga, Tagama, all - Phassa paccaya.. "Vedana"

      "Oh...Because of Phassa (Contact) this Vedana (Feeling)" (arises) "So true, Sir"

      "Eh... If Phassa is (extinguished) eradicated"

      "Vedana (too) disappears, Sir"

      "That is why, we do so keep on observing these small Vedana (Feelings), arisings - disappearings" (arising-perishing)" "So true, Sir"

      " When so keeping on observing - so observing the small feelings arising - disappearing, Vedana (feeling) is arising-disappearing - that which (does the observing) is Magga, so it happened!" "So true, Sir"

      " (Now!) Are you satisfied (do you now understand?)" "Satisfied, Sir"

      "What (then) is Vedana? " " (Just) arising - disappearing (phenomena), Sir"

      "Eh... (then) that which is Observing, What is it?" "Magga (it is), Sir"

      "There! For us all (it may be said), Taga, Tagama, all, (with) Magga Over-riding, death - where are (those usually) following Tanha (craving), Upadana (grasping), Kamma (those re-birth influencing actions), Zati, Zaya, Marana (Rebirth, Decay and Death) — Do they yet (follow) come (to be)" Do not come, Sir" "

      "Eh...we (of course, will all) face death,

      (But), freed of (any) Perplexity, (is it not so)?" "So true, Sir"

      "If Phassa (Contact) arises, Vedana (Feeling) do (also, ordinarily) arises. So true..." "

      "When Phassa ceases to be" "Vedana ceases, Sir"

      "For (the objective of) Vedana ceasing we are observing the arising - disappearing (phenomena), Vedana (the feeling) too, is just arising and disappearing, (And) that (which is) observing awareness Magga, (now) in our Mind, does not (our) Paticcasamuppada (be) in a state of discontinuity (extinction) ?" "Is extinguished, Sir"

      "Thus so extinguished for the individual (who has attained such a mental state)." "So true, Sir"

      " However, new arisings and continuity of the conditioned genesis will keep these ever mounting in the individual who is unable to so attain..," "So true, Sir"

      "For individual who has mentally broken free" "Is extinguished, Sir"

      "Are you satisfied ?" "Satisfied, Sir"

      "Eh... (for) the individual who does not know how to mentally sever, (nor) able to break-free mentally, new continuity follows" "So true, Sir"

      "For the individual who knows how to mentally break free" "Is extinguished, Sir"

      "Aye.. .that former individual - the individual who is afraid - does not know (his) Paticcasamuppada's beginning, also" "Does not know, Sir"

      (nor) "Also its end" "Does not know, Sir"

      "The beginning, (its) middle, and (its) beginning-end, both also.." (he/she) "Does not know, Sir"

      "Therefore, with (much, great) Perplexity he goes to his death" "Yes "

      "If I should die.' wondering just where (I) will be going?' so, is afraid! " "Is afraid"

      "Is he so not afraid" "Is afraid, Sir"

      "Now then, for these Taga, Tagama, all - (have) already (known), Eh... (that) of this Vedana (feeling) is not 'I'" (nor 'he' or 'she') "Is not (afraid), Sir"