by Ven. Nai Teja
Mon State, Myanmar

(Dana Sri lanka Society, 2nd Anniversary, Publication No. 4, 1999)

       According to the first teaching of the Buddha, Noble Truth of suffering (Dukkha sacca), there is nothing in the world except suffering, Dukkha which was really happening in our daily lives almost people in the world try to get rid of them and they would like to live in peace of mind and happiness which is exactly to be their final target. Many people are talking about happiness and peace but they don't seek the right way that lead to real happiness and peace and also don't know how to achieve them.

       Many people wish to possess properties such as good car, house, land and also various luxuries in order to enjoy their lives with such properties. Therefore they continually have to carry on their jobs, business and face many problems at all times.

       They thought that those such properties are permanent, real objects and belong to them. They also misunderstand those properties as real possession and enable them to satisfy their lives. Because of this misunderstanding, the egoism or false view arises in themselves, such as 'I', 'my' or a person, a being, and this is my house, my car etc. According to definition of Buddhism that there is no such concept of Egoism as 'I', 'mine', a being, a person and so on. These wrong view or concept of Egoism are a basic cause of attachment (Tanha). This Tanha or attachment has been the cause of suffering (Dukkha)

       When these false views as 'I', 'mine', myself, an individual, being etc. have been destroyed, there will not arise attachment, lusting (Tanha). If Tanha or attachment, the cause of suffering (Dukkha) can be exterminated completely all kind of sufferings, Dukkha extinguishes or disappears and then we can reach the real happiness, highest happiness and peace of mind cannot be sought outside but it has to be found in ourselves. So if we really want to be free from Dukkha, suffering we have to understand the true nature of life and of the world according to the teaching of the Buddha, the First Noble Truth.

       It was clearly mentioned in Dhammacakkapavattana sutta, the very first sermon of the Buddha. It was preached about the four Noble Truth and The Noble Eightfold path. This was firstly delivered to the five monks, (Pancavaggiya bhikkhu) at deer park in Sarnath of India. One who realises this truth and penetrate into the true nature of existence of oneself. The essence of the Buddha's teaching is about the existence of Dukkha and its cessation. Because we fail to understand the Four Noble Truth, we have to continue our lives and go round in Samsara..

       Suffering (Dukkha) is the first Noble Truth, Dukkha sacca. Here Dukkha includes both physical and mental suffering which we are constantly experiencing in our daily lives. We can see clearly how our lives are full of suffering as pointed out in the First Noble Truth. It is manifestly mentioned that birth, decay sickness, old-age and death are Dukkha. Association with the unloved one, and separation form the loved one is also Dukkha and not getting what one desires is Dukkha, too. Likewise sorrow, lementation, despair etc. are also Dukkha. Those are unavoidable events, all which have been part and parcel of live in this world. In brief all grasping of five Aggregates (Pancakkhandha) are Dukkha. Therefore e can see that the Dukkha sacca is the Truth of the life, the world and also the real nature of the life.

       According to Buddhist philosophy an individual or the body of person is made up of the five Aggregates which is in brief Nama and Rupa. All these five Aggregates are constantly changing, impermanent and Souless. Whatever changing. impermanence is suffering, Dukkha. Therefore there is no permanent existence as a being in the world.

       The Buddha delivered in Samyutta Nikaya that Dukkha, Suffering is divided into three different types namely Dukkha-Dukkha, Viparinama-Dukkha, and Sankhara- Dukkha.

       Dukkha-Dukkha is the most common suffering. It means the ordinary feeling of suffering due ot sickness, old-age, death, loss of friends, parents, children and so on. This sort of suffering is very often experienced in our daily lives. It also includes physical and mental suffering such as pain, sorrow etc.

       Viparinama-Dukkha means changes of existing favourable condition in life. A happy feeling or condition is just a moment, it is not permanent, ever lusting. It is always changing. For instance, when an happy feeling changes on to an unhappy feeling, there arises or produces unhappiness, disappointment, misery, etc. This sort of suffering is produced by changing condition.

       Sankhara-Dukkha is unlike above two Dukkhas, it is the most important aspect. It is very deep and difficult to understand. It is described as unsatisfactoriness and experienced due to conditioned state. It is necessary to realise the analysis of an individual or being in order to understand this Sankhara-Dukkha property.

      As mentioned in the first Noble Truth, there is no 'being' or 'person'. It is merely Five Aggregates. None of them are everlasting and permanent therefore there is no permanent substance in 'I' or 'being' or individual. What we call a being or a person or 'I' is only a combination of physical and mental process. This concept of calling as a being or 'I' is to develop Egoism. This Egoism forces one to attach on these five Aggregates. This attachment or Tanha makes one to think these five fold mass mass as 'being', 'I', mine etc. This false view or wrong concept leads us to selfishness to individualism.

       Tanha, attachment is the cause of suffering, Dukkha. If we real want to get rid of dukkha, suffering, we must exterminate this Tanha. If there is no Tanha, no more suffering. Until Tanha cannot be annihilated that we are always in various suffering. For instance, when we are attached to our son, wife, house, property etc., we are constantly worried about them. If our house is on fire or if our son is lost we feel very sad and miserable. This sadness and misery is one main kind of suffering. That suffering is caused by our attachment to our properties..

      I, finally would like to conclude that there is no 'being', person, or 'I', he, she in accordance with definition of Buddhist philosophy. The idea of being, I, he, is just only a combination of five Aggregates.

       They are impermanent and ever changing in our lives. Whatever changing is suffering, Dukkha. All properties, luxurious thing we experienced in this life do not last long and also not the final goal of our lives. In fact, the grasping of five Aggregates are Dukkha or suffering. According to teaching of the Buddha every thing is suffering in the world. Our lives, therefore, are full of suffering at all times.

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