( B=Burmese/Myanmar pronunciation )
abhassara: The 'Radiant Ones', are a class of heavenly beings of the fine material world (rupa-loka).
abhassara brahma: the radiant brahma of the second Rupavacara Jhana Brahma realm.
Abhidhamma: , philosophical exposition of the Dhamma, higher doctrine, Buddhist philosophy, metaphysics, systematic analyses of the main points of the Buddha's teachings; name of the Third Pitaka of the Buddhist Doctrine, dealing with the ultimate nature of things.
Abhidhamma Pitaka: , the name of the Third Pitaka of the Buddhist Doctrine.
abhijjha: covetousness; greed, lobha
abhinnas: higher psychic power; intuitive knowledge; transcendental wisdom ; psychic powers acquired in the process of " self-purification " and liberation. ;having understood well, special power, supernormal power.
abhisamaya: the moment of awakening, enlightenment.
abhisankhara: volitional formation, new conditioning.
abhisankhara mara: moral and immoral actions leading to conditioned existence
abhisankhara upadhi : moral and immoral actions which prolong the round of rebirth
abhuta - unoriginated
abrahmacariya: ignoble practice, unchastity
abyakata - undeclared, unexplained
abyapada - non-aversion
acariya : teacher, mentor
acariya vatta : duties of bhikkhus and novices towards their mentors
acinnakamma- habitual kamma
acinteyya: incomprehensibility; unthinkable, incomprehensible, Impenetrable.
adhamma: injustice, unrighteous conduct.
adhicitta sikkha- training in higher mentality
adhigama: realisation, attainment to wisdom.
adhika: senior, better, superior.
adhimokkha : Determination, one of the cetasika, faith, conviction
adhipati: Lord, chieftain.
adhissla sikkha: Training in higher morality.
aditthana - determination, resolution.
adinadana: theft, taking what is not given.
adsnava - danger, misery.
adosa: amity, hatelessness, non-hatred, one of the three wholsome roots
agantu: a guest
agati : 4 'wrong paths'.
agatigamana - evil motives
agga: chief, top, highest, end.
agga maha kammatthanacariya: The title of 'Great Noble Meditation Master' in Burma (Myanmar)
aggasavaka-, Chief Disciple, supreme disciple of the Buddha
ahara: Nutriment, food, nutrition, nourishment
ahetuka-ditthi : causelessness belief; belief that there is no cause for anything
ahimsa - non-injuring; harmless; non-violent
ahirika - shamelessness, lack of moral shame.
ahirika-anottappa : Lack of moral shame and dread
ahosi-kamma. : 'Ineffective Kamma'
ajata - unborn
Ajatasattu:, Indian King who managed to kill his own father.
ajsva : livelihood.
ajsva-parisuddhi-ssla: morality of pure livelihood.
akanittha: the great ones, 'Highest Gods'
akasa : Space.
akasa-dhatu: Space element.
akasa-kasina: Space-kasina exercise.
akata - uncreated
akiriya-ditthi:View of ineffiency of action.
akusala - unwholesome, unskillful, unwholesome, immoral, demeritorious
akusala cetasika, akusala mental concomitants
akusala kamma - Unwholesome action
akusala-vipakka: Unwholesome thoughts.
Alara Kalama- the Bodhisatta's first meditation teacher
alobha - non-greed (=detachment). greedlessness, disinterestedness
aloka : light, illumination.
aloka-kasina : light kasina exercise.
aloka-sanna - Perception of light
amatadhatu - the deathless element
amatapada - the deathless state
amisa: four monastic requisites
amitta: foe, enemy.
amoha - non-delusion
anagami: non-returner, one who has achieved the next-to-highest level of transcendent insight, after destroying five of ten fetters, one who has attained the third magga; one who will not return to the world of sense-spheres. Non- returner a noble disciple on the third stage of sanctification
anagamimagga - path of non-returner
anagami magga-phalla : A Path and Fruition of Non- returning.
anagamiphala - fruit of non-returner
Ananda : the cousin of the Buddha and the Buddhist's faithful attendant monk, he had excellent memory , memorizing the Buddha's sermons which were later recorded as Suttas
anapana : inhalation and exhalation, respiration
anapanasati: Mindfulness of in- and out-breathing
anantarika-kamma: heinous action with immediate destiny: parricide, matricide, killing an Arahat, wounding a Buddha, creating schism in the monks' Order.
anantariya: the immediacy, a name for concentration of mind
anathapindika: a wealthy merchant of Savatthi in Ancient India, constructed Jetavanna Grove
anatta - not self, uncontrollable nature, selflessness (non-self), soullessness (no-soul), no substance, egolessness; without a soul; non-existence of self, ego or soul. The most important Truth to be realised in order to attain liberation.
anatta-sanna : Perception of not-self.
anguttaranikaya: , collection of numerically graduated discourses
anicca : impermanence and changeability.
Aniccanupassana: contemplation of impermanence
anicca-sanna: Perception of Impermanence.
Animitta: The Signless, i.e., no sign of craving, ill will and wrong view. It is an epithet of Nibbana.
Anitthayon: unpleasant and horrible sense object.
anna: Highest knowledge.
annadana : donation of food
anoma: river crossed by the Bodhisatta on renunciation
anottappa: fearlessness, recklessness, lack of moral dread (in doing bad things)
Anudhammacari: one who acts in conformity with the Dhamma
anuloma : the order of arising
anuloma-citta : adaption moment of consciousness
anuloma-nana : adaption-knowledge
anumodana: expression of appreciation or approval; a monk's blessings after receiving dana, sharing of, thanking.
anupadisesa-nibbana : Nibbana which takes place at the death of an arahant, without any substratum of life remaining.
anupadisesa nibbanadhatu- the nibbana element without residues remaining
anusaya - latent tendency, underlying, latent disposition or tendency.
anusaya kilesa: latent defilements, latent tendencies.
anussati : reflection, earnest contemplation
anuttara sammasambodhi - supreme perfect enlightenment
apana: respiration, breathing out.
apatti : violation of disciplinary rules for bhikkhus; an offence
apatti samghadisesa: offences committed by a bhikkhu; require penance and suspension from the order.
apaya : miserable existences; the four lower worlds
apayabhumi - planes of misery
apo : water.
apo dhatu : element of cohesion, fluid element, element of water
appamada: mindfulness, vigilance, heedfulness
appana: absorption concentration.
appanasamadhi - absorption concentration
arahat, arahatta- an accomplished one, one who has reached liberation while alive; Arahant: Araha; 'worthy' one who is fully enlightened after destroying all ten fetters; one who has attained the fourth and final Magga, and for whom existences have come to an end, arahanta, araha; one who has attained the Summum Bonum of religious aspiration- Nibbana;
arahattamagga - path of arahatship
arahatta magga-phala : Path and Fruition of the fourth stage of sanctification.
arahattaphala- fruit of arahatship
arammana : a sense object.
ariya: the one who has extinguished defilements, the noble one; one who has entered the path, i.e., one who has realized at least one of the four Maggas; One of the Four Groups of Noble Personalities; i.e.,Stream-Winner; Once-Returner, Non-Returner and Purified (Arahat);
ariya atthangikamagga- the noble eightfold path
ariya puggala : Enlightened person
ariyasacca : Noble Truth, the four ariya truths
ariyasangha- community of noble ones
ariyasavaka : Noble disciple; saintly disciple
ariya-magga: the Noble Path
ariya magganana: insight of the Noble Path
arupa - formless meditative absorption or attainment (four)
arupavacarajjhana: absorption of the immaterial sphere.
arupabhumi : Non-material sphere, formless realm.
arupa-raga: craving for existence in the immaterial world.
asankhata : unconditioned state, Nibbana.
asannakamma- death-proximate kamma
asava: moral intoxicant, befuddling defilements; taints of mind, corruptions, biases; intoxicating extract or secretion of a flower or tree.
Asoka: the third Emperor of the Mauryan Dynasty in Ancient India in 268-239 BC; the Third Council was held during his reign; set the model for government ruling in accordance with Buddhist philosophy
assada - satisfaction, enjoyment
Assaji: one of the five ascetics; after attaining Arahantship, he converted Sariputta, the Chief Disciple of the Buddha.
asubha kammathana: reflecting on the repellent nature of a dead human body
asura : demons, fierce divine beings, 'titans'; the male Asura is ugly and furious always fighting with each other. The female Asura is very beautiful. They inhibit one of the lower worlds.
atimana : Superiority conceit.
atta : true self, body, self; consciousness, mind; ego or soul, principle; The central idea in all animistic religions, but shown by Buddhism, science and philosophy to be a false concept;
attabhava : person, personality, re-birth, self-hood.
atta-ditthi: 'personality-belief', ego-belief.
attahita - one's own welfare
attakilamathanuyoga- devotion to self- mortification
atthacariya: giving good counsel
atthakatha: commentary, explanation of meaning
atthakkhana: eight inopportune circumstances or times
atthapatisambhidha: analytical insight into the meaning; essence and consequence of things
atta-hita: one's own advantage
attavada: doctrine of self.
avasa : Place where we dwell.
avasavattita - not subject to the exercise of mastery
avaso: home, dwelling place.
avici : one of the eight hells
avijja : ignorance, delusion, not understanding the full meaning of the Four Noble Truths
avijjasava: taints of ignorance.
ayatana- sphere, realm, sense-bases and sense-objects; sense field
ayu: age, life.
ayukkhaya marana : death from reaching end of life span
bala : power, strength.
bala: the foolish, the ignorant.
balu: Yakkha: minor deities.
bhadanta: venerable, worthy (person).
bhagava - the "Exalted One" (epithet of a Buddha)
bhagavant: Lord, Blessed one
Bhante: Venerable Sir: term of respectful address to a bhikkhu, Venerable one, O Lord, Revered Sir.
bhava- existence, state of existence, becoming
bhavana: development by means of thought, meditation
bhavanga - the life continuum
bhavatanha - craving for existence
bhikkhu - a fully ordained monk, a member of the Buddhist Order; (Sanskrit-Bhiksu)
bhikkhuns - a fully ordained nun, a female member of the Buddhist Order; a Buddhist Nun: (see 'Thela-shin' )
bhikkhunssangha - the order of fully ordained nuns
bhikkhusangha - the order of fully ordained monks
bhojana: food, eating; alms.
bhumi: earth, region, plane.
bodhisatta - one striving for complete Buddhahood
bhutagama sikkha: The disciplinary rule forbidding bhikkhus to cut vegetation.
bijaniyama: the natural law of cause and effect (on heredity); one of five Niyama
Bimbisara: Beimbathaya (B); king of Magadha
Bodh-Gaya: Buddhagaya (see below)
bodhi : perfect wisdom or enlightenment; enlightenment
bodhi nana or sabbanuta nana - Supreme Enlightenment; the all cornprehending wisdom.
bodhi-pakkhiya: contributing to Enlightment.
bodhisatta: Bawdithat (B), the Buddha-to-be (also known as Hpaya- laung in Burmese); one who is destined for enlightenment.
Bodhisatta Metteyya: the would-be next Buddha called Metteyya.
bodhi: (1) Enlightenment, (2) The tree of wisdom (Ficus religiosa) under which Gotama sat in meditation to attain the Enlightenment of a Supreme Buddha.
bodhi Tree: the sacred banyan tree under which the Buddha gained enlightenment; also 'Bo' tree.
Brahma : Byamma(B); a class of higher gods (although both 'Deva' and 'Brahma' are sometimes loosely translated as 'gods' or 'angels', they do not in any way correspond to these Western concepts)
brahmacariya- the holy life, celibacy
Brahmadanda: Brahma-punishment by the Order of Sangha to ignore and have nothing to do with Vedic Priest; one of the four castes in ancient and modern India; a member of priestly class in ancient India.
brahma-loka: realm of Brahmas.
Brahma Sahampati- the high divinity who urged the Buddha to teach the Dhamma
brahmavihara - sublime states, divine abodes
Buddha:: the Founder of Buddhism, the Enlightened One; one who has attained en lightenment;The latest of the Buddhas was Gotama Buddha now referred to as "the Buddha."
Buddha-Dhamma: the Doctrine taught by the Buddha
Buddhaghosa: a famous buddhist writer of the fifteenth century.
Buddhagaya: Bodh-Gaya in Bihar, India: where the Buddha gained Enlightenment.
buddhanussati : recollection of Buddha.
Buddhism: a religious teaching propagated by the Buddha and his followers that one must become free of human desires to escape from suffering
buddhist: ; the followers of the Buddha
byapada / vyapada: ill will, anger, hatred
caga - generosity
cakkavattiraja- universal monarch
cakkhukarani- leading to vision
cankama: walking up and down.
cattari ariyasaccani- the four noble truths
Catumadhu: 4 types of honey.
cetana : will, intention, volition.
Cetasikas : mental Concomitants
Cetiya: stupa, shrine, pagoda
chanda: desire, will, desire.
chanda raga: lust.
Channa: (Hsanna); Gotama's attendant, charioteer
ciram: for a long time.
cittaniyama: the natural law of cause and effect (workings of the mind); one of five Niyama
citta: mind, thought, consciousness, mental act
cittakammannata: fittness of the work of the mind.
cittalahuta: lightness of the mind.
cittamuduta: pliancy of the mind.
cittanupassana - contemplation of states of mind
cittapagunnata: skilfnulness of mind.
cittasantana - the mental continuum
citt'ekaggata - one-pointedness of mind
citt'uppada - same as citta above
csvara : 3 requisite robes of a monk; piece of cloth used by a bhikkhu.
csvara-kamma: making-up or mending of robes.
Culamani: Sulamani (B); shrine in Tavatimsa heaven
dakkhina: southern, righthand side
dana: charity, alms-giving; gifts made to the Holy Order of Monks; the first of the Ten good deeds.
danda : Stick, weapon, punishment, penalty.
dasarajadhamma- ten royal virtues
dasassla - the ten precepts (of a samanera)
dasasslamata - a ten precept- observing nun
dasassla upasika- a woman observing the ten precepts
dayaka: donor, giver.
desana : discourse, instruction, expounding, preashing.
deva - : god, heavenly being, a minor god, a spirit being, a celestial being; a being born in one of the higher realms within the Sensuous Sphere (kama-loka); shining one
Devadatta: cousin and brother-in-law of Prince Siddhatta, Yasodhara's brother
dhamma : Dharma (Sanskrit) : the Doctrine of the Buddha; teaching of Buddha; truth, the law; (1) The liberating law discovered and proclaimed by the Buddha, is summed up in the four Noble Truths. (2) Constitution, Norm, Law, Justice, Righteousness.
dhammacakka - Wheel of Law, the wheel of Dhamma
dhammacakkhu - eye of Dhamma, insight into truth
dhamma-desana: discourse of Dhamma.
dhammadhara: one who is versed in the Dhamma
dhammajivino : One who earns his living according to the dhamma
dhammamuttamam: The Noble Dhamma or the Highest Dhamma (the Nine Transcendentals). The Nine Transcendentals are: four Magga, four Phalas and Nibbana.
dhammaniyama: the universal natural law of cause and effect
dhammanupassana - contemplation of mind-objects
dhammas: all conditioned and un-conditioned phenomenon
dhammattha: just, righteous
dhammika: a righteous, just.
dhana: wealth, money.
dhatu: element, (pathavi=earth, tejo=fire, apo=water & vayo=motion)
dhutanga: austerity or purification practice to remove defilement
dibbacakkhu nana: the divine power of sight
dipa - island
Dipankara - an ancient Buddha, the twenty sixth before Gotama
ditthadhamma attha - the benefit pertaining to the present life
ditthi:; view, beliefs; (can be good or bad); belief, dogma, theory
domanassa: grief, distress, displeasure.
dosa; hatred, anger, ill will, aversion .
duggati: unhappy destinations or existences; the four lower worlds
dukkha - suffering, stress, pain ( in the context of feeling), unsatisfactoriness, suffering
dukkhanirodha - the cessation of suffering
dukkhanirodha ariyasacca- the noble truth of the cessation of dukkha
dukkhanirodhagaminspatipada - the way leading to the cessation of dukkha
dukkhanirodhagaminspatipada ariyasacca- the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of dukkha
dukkhasamudaya ariasacca - the noble truth of the origin of dukkha
dullabha : difficult to obtain, rare.
duta: messenger, emissary.
dvara- door of action (=body, speech, mind), door, gate.
eka: one, single.
etadaggam: the chief, the best
gacchati: while in motion.
gambhira: deep, profound, well- founded, hard to perceive.
gana: chapter of monks.:
gandhabba - the stream of consciousness ready to take rebirth, smell, a class of devas; attendants of the King of the eastern direction
ganthadhura - the career of study
garu: heavy, weighty
garukakamma - heavy kamma
gatha: a verse, a stanza
gilana: bhikkhu who is ill or feverish
giri: mountain, rock.
gita: singing, song.
gocaragama: a village from where a monk obtains his food.
Gotama: the family name of Prince Siddhatta, the future Buddha
hamsa: the mythical sacred goose/ swan.
hina: low, deprived, mean, inferior.
Hinayana: ' Small Vehicle '; Theravada is the term preferred by most Buddhists of south-east Asia.
hirs: modesty, the shame of being known to do bad deeds.
hita: good, welfare, beneficial.
idappaccayata - conditionality
iddhi: psychic power, success.
iddhipada: firmly established powers: will power; effort; consciousness; wisdom.
indriyas: controlloing faculties
Isipatana : Saranath near Varanasi ( formerly Benares, Uttar Pradesh, India ) where the Buddha preached the first sermon.
itthayon: pleasant or desirable sense-object.
Jambudipa: the continent so called (according to ancient division of earth)
jara: ageing, decay
Jaramarana: ageing and death
Jataka stories: ; 547 tales of the Buddha in his previous existences. Usually referred to as 550 Jatakas in Burma.
jhana : level of deep calm, advanced states of meditation practice in which the mind is totally absorbed in its object of concentration; trance, tranquillity, mental absorption.
jhananga- factor of absorption (five)
vitakka - initial application
vicara - sustained application
psti - rapture
sukha - happiness
citt'ekaggata - one-pointedness of mind
jivitindriya - the life-faculty
kalyana: good deed, pleasant.
kalyanamitta: good friend, a virtuous friend, a spiritual friend
kalyana puthujjana: virtuous worldling
kama: desire, sensual pleasure.
kamadhatu - sense sphere realm
kamatanha - craving for sense pleasures
kamma:- volitional action, karma, destiny or fate/ Doctrine of inevitable consequence, work or action; principle of the law of cause and effect.
kammabhava - kammically accumulative existence
kammaniyama - the order of kamma, law of kamma
kammatthana - meditation object
kammavatta - phase of kamma
kammawa: lacquered Scriptures.
kammavaca: a wording that ought to be uttered at time of performing a monastic procedure.
Kapilavatthu - the capital city of the Sakyans
kappa - an aeon, the lifespan of a world system
Karavika: an India bird noted for the beauty of its song.
Karaweik: Garuda, the royal bird mount of Vishnu.
kasina - disc-like object of concentration
Kassapa: One of the 28 Buddhas, a famous Disciple of the Buddha
katattakama- miscellaneous kamma
kathina - the ceremony of robes- offering, following the end of the Vassa
kaya: body, form
kayakamma- bodily action
kayanupassana - contemplation of the body
kesa: hair (of head).
khana: moment, opportunity.
khandhaparinibbana - the extinguishing of the aggregate-continuum
khandhas: groups or aggregates; five in number (material form, feeling or sensation, perception, volitional impulses or tendencies and consciousness);
khanika - momentary
khanikasamadhi - momentary concentration
Khattiya: a member of warrior or noble class in ancient IndiaThe warrior caste In the Buddha's day, the highest social caste.
kilesa - defilement, a mental unwholesome state
kilesaparinibbana - the extinguishment of defilements
kiriya - the action of an arahat, not kamma
Kinnara and Kinnari: mythological hybrid creatures, half- human and half-bird.
Kondanna: the first Arahant and the most senior member of the Sangha. As a brahmin, he correctly predicted the future of the Prince Siddhatta.
kumara: boy, prince.
kusala : good, merit, skillful, wholesome.
kusala kammapathas: the ten bases of skillful action
kuts : hut, small house, lodging.
Kusinara : Kusinagare in Uttar Pradesh, India: small town where the Buddha passed away.