(Under Re-construction)

( B=Burmese/Myanmar pronunciation )



abhassara: The 'Radiant Ones', are a class of heavenly beings of the fine material world (rupa-loka).

abhassara brahma: the radiant brahma of the second Rupavacara Jhana Brahma realm.

abhibhayatana jhana

Abhidhamma: , philosophical exposition of the Dhamma, higher doctrine, Buddhist philosophy, metaphysics, systematic analyses of the main points of the Buddha's teachings; name of the Third Pitaka of the Buddhist Doctrine, dealing with the ultimate nature of things.

Abhidhamma Pitaka: {short description of image}, the name of the Third Pitaka of the Buddhist Doctrine.

abhijjha: covetousness; greed, lobha

abhinnas: higher psychic power; intuitive knowledge; transcendental wisdom ; psychic powers acquired in the process of " self-purification " and liberation. ;having understood well, special power, supernormal power.

abhisamaya: the moment of awakening, enlightenment.

abhisankhara: volitional formation, new conditioning.

abhisankhara mara: moral and immoral actions leading to conditioned existence

abhisankhara upadhi : moral and immoral actions which prolong the round of rebirth

abhuta - unoriginated

abrahmacariya: ignoble practice, unchastity

abyakata - undeclared, unexplained

abyapada - non-aversion

acariya : teacher, mentor

acariya vatta : duties of bhikkhus and novices towards their mentors

acinnakamma- habitual kamma

acinteyya: incomprehensibility; unthinkable, incomprehensible, Impenetrable.

adhamma: injustice, unrighteous conduct.

adhicitta sikkha- training in higher mentality

adhigama: realisation, attainment to wisdom.

adhika: senior, better, superior.

adhimokkha : Determination, one of the cetasika, faith, conviction

adhipati: Lord, chieftain.

adhissla sikkha: Training in higher morality.

aditthana - determination, resolution.

adinadana: theft, taking what is not given.

adsnava - danger, misery.





adosa: amity, hatelessness, non-hatred, one of the three wholsome roots

agantu: a guest

agati : 4 'wrong paths'.

agatigamana - evil motives

agga: chief, top, highest, end.

agga maha kammatthanacariya: The title of 'Great Noble Meditation Master' in Burma (Myanmar)

aggasavaka-{short description of image}, Chief Disciple, supreme disciple of the Buddha

ahara: Nutriment, food, nutrition, nourishment

ahetuka-ditthi : causelessness belief; belief that there is no cause for anything

ahimsa - non-injuring; harmless; non-violent

ahirika - shamelessness, lack of moral shame.

ahirika-anottappa : Lack of moral shame and dread

ahosi-kamma. : 'Ineffective Kamma'

ajata - unborn

Ajita Kesakambala

Ajatasattu:{short description of image}, Indian King who managed to kill his own father.

ajsva : livelihood.

ajsva-parisuddhi-ssla: morality of pure livelihood.



akanittha: the great ones, 'Highest Gods'

akasa : Space.

akasa-dhatu: Space element.

akasa-kasina: Space-kasina exercise.

akasanancayatana jhana

akata - uncreated

akincannyatana jhana

akiriya-ditthi:View of ineffiency of action.

akusala - unwholesome, unskillful, unwholesome, immoral, demeritorious

akusala cetasika, akusala mental concomitants

akusala kamma - Unwholesome action

akusala kammapathas

akusala-vipakka: Unwholesome thoughts.

Alara Kalama- the Bodhisatta's first meditation teacher

alobha - non-greed (=detachment). greedlessness, disinterestedness

aloka : light, illumination.

aloka-kasina : light kasina exercise.

aloka-sanna - Perception of light

amahaggata citta

amaravikkhepa ditthi

amatadhatu - the deathless element

amatapada - the deathless state



amisa: four monastic requisites

amitta: foe, enemy.

amoha - non-delusion

anagami: non-returner, one who has achieved the next-to-highest level of transcendent insight, after destroying five of ten fetters, one who has attained the third magga; one who will not return to the world of sense-spheres. Non- returner a noble disciple on the third stage of sanctification

anagamimagga - path of non-returner

anagami magga-phalla : A Path and Fruition of Non- returning.

anagamiphala - fruit of non-returner

anagariya- homelessness

Ananda : the cousin of the Buddha and the Buddhist's faithful attendant monk, he had excellent memory , memorizing the Buddha's sermons which were later recorded as Suttas

anapana : inhalation and exhalation, respiration

anapanasati: Mindfulness of in- and out-breathing

anantarika-kamma: heinous action with immediate destiny: parricide, matricide, killing an Arahat, wounding a Buddha, creating schism in the monks' Order.

anantara-paccaya: Proximity

anantariya: the immediacy, a name for concentration of mind

anathapindika: a wealthy merchant of Savatthi in Ancient India, constructed Jetavanna Grove

anatta - not self, uncontrollable nature, selflessness (non-self), soullessness (no-soul), no substance, egolessness; without a soul; non-existence of self, ego or soul. The most important Truth to be realised in order to attain liberation.

anatta-sanna : Perception of not-self.

anguttaranikaya: {short description of image}, collection of numerically graduated discourses

anicca : impermanence and changeability.

Aniccanupassana: contemplation of impermanence

anicca-sanna: Perception of Impermanence.

Animitta: The Signless, i.e., no sign of craving, ill will and wrong view. It is an epithet of Nibbana.

Anitthayon: unpleasant and horrible sense object.

anna: Highest knowledge.

annadana : donation of food

anoma: river crossed by the Bodhisatta on renunciation

anottappa: fearlessness, recklessness, lack of moral dread (in doing bad things)

antananta ditthi

Anudhammacari: one who acts in conformity with the Dhamma

anuloma : the order of arising

anuloma-citta : adaption moment of consciousness

anuloma-nana : adaption-knowledge

anumodana: expression of appreciation or approval; a monk's blessings after receiving dana, sharing of, thanking.


anupadisesa-nibbana : Nibbana which takes place at the death of an arahant, without any substratum of life remaining.

anupadisesa nibbanadhatu- the nibbana element without residues remaining

anupassana: contemplation


anusaya - latent tendency, underlying, latent disposition or tendency.

anusaya kilesa: latent defilements, latent tendencies.

anussati : reflection, earnest contemplation

anuttara citta

anuttara sammasambodhi - supreme perfect enlightenment



apana: respiration, breathing out.


apatti : violation of disciplinary rules for bhikkhus; an offence

apatti samghadisesa: offences committed by a bhikkhu; require penance and suspension from the order.

apaya : miserable existences; the four lower worlds

apayabhumi - planes of misery

apo : water.

apo dhatu : element of cohesion, fluid element, element of water

appamada: mindfulness, vigilance, heedfulness

appana: absorption concentration.

appanasamadhi - absorption concentration

arahat, arahatta- an accomplished one, one who has reached liberation while alive; Arahant: Araha; 'worthy' one who is fully enlightened after destroying all ten fetters; one who has attained the fourth and final Magga, and for whom existences have come to an end, arahanta, araha; one who has attained the Summum Bonum of religious aspiration- Nibbana;

arahattamagga - path of arahatship

arahatta magga-phala : Path and Fruition of the fourth stage of sanctification.

arahattaphala- fruit of arahatship

arahattaphala panna


arammana : a sense object.

ariya: the one who has extinguished defilements, the noble one; one who has entered the path, i.e., one who has realized at least one of the four Maggas; One of the Four Groups of Noble Personalities; i.e.,Stream-Winner; Once-Returner, Non-Returner and Purified (Arahat);

ariya atthangikamagga- the noble eightfold path

ariya atthangikamagga

arupa bhava

ariya puggala : Enlightened person

ariyasacca : Noble Truth, the four ariya truths

ariyasangha- community of noble ones

ariyasavaka : Noble disciple; saintly disciple

ariya-magga: the Noble Path

ariya magganana: insight of the Noble Path

arupa - formless meditative absorption or attainment (four)

arupavacarajjhana: absorption of the immaterial sphere.

arupabhumi : Non-material sphere, formless realm.

arupa-raga: craving for existence in the immaterial world.

asankhata : unconditioned state, Nibbana.

asankhyeyya ayu

asannakamma- death-proximate kamma


asava: moral intoxicant, befuddling defilements; taints of mind, corruptions, biases; intoxicating extract or secretion of a flower or tree.

asavakkhaya nana

Asoka: the third Emperor of the Mauryan Dynasty in Ancient India in 268-239 BC; the Third Council was held during his reign; set the model for government ruling in accordance with Buddhist philosophy

assada - satisfaction, enjoyment

Assaji: one of the five ascetics; after attaining Arahantship, he converted Sariputta, the Chief Disciple of the Buddha.

asubha: Impurity.

asubha kammathana: reflecting on the repellent nature of a dead human body

asura : demons, fierce divine beings, 'titans'; the male Asura is ugly and furious always fighting with each other. The female Asura is very beautiful. They inhibit one of the lower worlds.

atimana : Superiority conceit.

atta : true self, body, self; consciousness, mind; ego or soul, principle; The central idea in all animistic religions, but shown by Buddhism, science and philosophy to be a false concept;

attabhava : person, personality, re-birth, self-hood.

atta-ditthi: 'personality-belief', ego-belief.

attahita - one's own welfare

attakilamathanuyoga- devotion to self- mortification

atthacariya: giving good counsel

atthakatha: commentary, explanation of meaning

atthangika magga


atthakkhana: eight inopportune circumstances or times

atthapatisambhidha: analytical insight into the meaning; essence and consequence of things

atta-hita: one's own advantage

attavada: doctrine of self.


avasa : Place where we dwell.

avasavattita - not subject to the exercise of mastery

avaso: home, dwelling place.

avici : one of the eight hells

avihi½sa- non-injury

avijja : ignorance, delusion, not understanding the full meaning of the Four Noble Truths

avijjasava: taints of ignorance.

avimutta citta



ayatana- sphere, realm, sense-bases and sense-objects; sense field


ayu: age, life.

ayukkhaya marana : death from reaching end of life span



bala : power, strength.

bala: the foolish, the ignorant.

balu: Yakkha: minor deities.



bhadanta: venerable, worthy (person).


bhagava - the "Exalted One" (epithet of a Buddha)

bhagavant: Lord, Blessed one

bhanga nana

Bhante: Venerable Sir: term of respectful address to a bhikkhu, Venerable one, O Lord, Revered Sir.

Bhasita: speech.

Bhassa: conversation.

bhava- existence, state of existence, becoming

bhavana: development by means of thought, meditation

bhavanga - the life continuum

bhavatanha - craving for existence

Bhaya: fear.

bhikkhu - a fully ordained monk, a member of the Buddhist Order; (Sanskrit-Bhiksu)

bhikkhuns - a fully ordained nun, a female member of the Buddhist Order; a Buddhist Nun: (see 'Thela-shin' )

bhikkhunssangha - the order of fully ordained nuns

bhikkhusangha - the order of fully ordained monks

bhojana: food, eating; alms.

bhumi: earth, region, plane.


bodhisatta - one striving for complete Buddhahood

bhutagama sikkha: The disciplinary rule forbidding bhikkhus to cut vegetation.

bija: seed.

bijaniyama: the natural law of cause and effect (on heredity); one of five Niyama

Bimbisara: Beimbathaya (B); king of Magadha

Bodh-Gaya: Buddhagaya (see below)

bodhi : perfect wisdom or enlightenment; enlightenment

bodhi nana or sabbanuta nana - Supreme Enlightenment; the all cornprehending wisdom.

bodhi-pakkhiya: contributing to Enlightment.

bodhisatta: Bawdithat (B), the Buddha-to-be (also known as Hpaya- laung in Burmese); one who is destined for enlightenment.

Bodhisatta Metteyya: the would-be next Buddha called Metteyya.

bodhi: (1) Enlightenment, (2) The tree of wisdom (Ficus religiosa) under which Gotama sat in meditation to attain the Enlightenment of a Supreme Buddha.

bodhi Tree: the sacred banyan tree under which the Buddha gained enlightenment; also 'Bo' tree.

bodhi nana


Brahma : Byamma(B); a class of higher gods (although both 'Deva' and 'Brahma' are sometimes loosely translated as 'gods' or 'angels', they do not in any way correspond to these Western concepts)

brahmacariya- the holy life, celibacy

Brahmadanda: Brahma-punishment by the Order of Sangha to ignore and have nothing to do with Vedic Priest; one of the four castes in ancient and modern India; a member of priestly class in ancient India.


Brahmajala Sutta

brahma-loka: realm of Brahmas.

Brahma Sahampati- the high divinity who urged the Buddha to teach the Dhamma



brahmavihara - sublime states, divine abodes

Buddha:: the Founder of Buddhism, the Enlightened One; one who has attained en lightenment;The latest of the Buddhas was Gotama Buddha now referred to as "the Buddha."


Buddha-Dhamma: the Doctrine taught by the Buddha

Buddhaghosa: a famous buddhist writer of the fifteenth century.

Buddhagaya: Bodh-Gaya in Bihar, India: where the Buddha gained Enlightenment.

buddhanussati : recollection of Buddha.

Buddhism: a religious teaching propagated by the Buddha and his followers that one must become free of human desires to escape from suffering

buddhist: {short description of image}; the followers of the Buddha

byapada / vyapada: ill will, anger, hatred


caga - generosity

cakkavattiraja- universal monarch

cakkha: wheel.

cakkhu: eye.

cakkhukarani- leading to vision

cakkhu-vinnana: eye-conscious.

cankama: walking up and down.


cattari ariyasaccani- the four noble truths

Catumadhu: 4 types of honey.


cetana : will, intention, volition.

Cetasikas : mental Concomitants

Cetiya: stupa, shrine, pagoda

cetopariya nana

Cha: six.

chanda: desire, will, desire.

chanda raga: lust.

Channa: (Hsanna); Gotama's attendant, charioteer

ciram: for a long time.

cittaniyama: the natural law of cause and effect (workings of the mind); one of five Niyama

citta: mind, thought, consciousness, mental act

cittakammannata: fittness of the work of the mind.

cittalahuta: lightness of the mind.

cittamuduta: pliancy of the mind.

cittanupassana - contemplation of states of mind

cittapagunnata: skilfnulness of mind.

cittasantana - the mental continuum


citt'ekaggata - one-pointedness of mind

citt'uppada - same as citta above

csvara : 3 requisite robes of a monk; piece of cloth used by a bhikkhu.

csvara-kamma: making-up or mending of robes.

Culamani: Sulamani (B); shrine in Tavatimsa heaven

cula ssla



cutupapata nana


dakkhina: southern, righthand side


dana: charity, alms-giving; gifts made to the Holy Order of Monks; the first of the Ten good deeds.

danda : Stick, weapon, punishment, penalty.

dasarajadhamma- ten royal virtues

dasassla - the ten precepts (of a samanera)

dasasslamata - a ten precept- observing nun

dasassla upasika- a woman observing the ten precepts

dayaka: donor, giver.

desana : discourse, instruction, expounding, preashing.

deva - : god, heavenly being, a minor god, a spirit being, a celestial being; a being born in one of the higher realms within the Sensuous Sphere (kama-loka); shining one

Devadatta: cousin and brother-in-law of Prince Siddhatta, Yasodhara's brother

dhamma : Dharma (Sanskrit) : the Doctrine of the Buddha; teaching of Buddha; truth, the law; (1) The liberating law discovered and proclaimed by the Buddha, is summed up in the four Noble Truths. (2) Constitution, Norm, Law, Justice, Righteousness.

dhammacakka - Wheel of Law, the wheel of Dhamma

dhammacakkhu - eye of Dhamma, insight into truth

dhamma-desana: discourse of Dhamma.

dhammadhara: one who is versed in the Dhamma

dhammajivino : One who earns his living according to the dhamma

dhammamuttamam: The Noble Dhamma or the Highest Dhamma (the Nine Transcendentals). The Nine Transcendentals are: four Magga, four Phalas and Nibbana.

dhammaniyama: the universal natural law of cause and effect

dhammanupassana - contemplation of mind-objects


dhammas: all conditioned and un-conditioned phenomenon


dhammattha: just, righteous

dhammika: a righteous, just.



dhana: wealth, money.

dhatu: element, (pathavi=earth, tejo=fire, apo=water & vayo=motion)

dhutanga: austerity or purification practice to remove defilement

dibbacakkhu abhinna

dibbacakkhu nana

dibbacakkhu nana: the divine power of sight

digha: long.

Digha Nikaya

dipa - island

Dipankara - an ancient Buddha, the twenty sixth before Gotama

ditthadhamma attha - the benefit pertaining to the present life

ditthi:; view, beliefs; (can be good or bad); belief, dogma, theory


dittha: seen.



domanassa: grief, distress, displeasure.

dosa; hatred, anger, ill will, aversion .

duggati: unhappy destinations or existences; the four lower worlds

dukkha - suffering, stress, pain ( in the context of feeling), unsatisfactoriness, suffering

dukkhanirodha - the cessation of suffering

dukkhanirodha ariyasacca- the noble truth of the cessation of dukkha

dukkhanirodhagaminspatipada - the way leading to the cessation of dukkha

dukkhanirodhagaminspatipada ariyasacca- the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of dukkha

dukkhasamudaya ariasacca - the noble truth of the origin of dukkha

dullabha : difficult to obtain, rare.

duta: messenger, emissary.

dvara- door of action (=body, speech, mind), door, gate.

dvi: two.



eka: one, single.


etadaggam: the chief, the best

evam: thus.


gacchati: while in motion.


gandha tanha


gambhira: deep, profound, well- founded, hard to perceive.

gana: chapter of monks.:

gandhabba - the stream of consciousness ready to take rebirth, smell, a class of devas; attendants of the King of the eastern direction

ganthadhura - the career of study

garu: heavy, weighty

garukakamma - heavy kamma

gatha: a verse, a stanza


geha: house.

ghana: nose.

gilana: bhikkhu who is ill or feverish

giri: mountain, rock.

gita: singing, song.

Gocara: pasture.

gocaragama: a village from where a monk obtains his food.

Gotama: the family name of Prince Siddhatta, the future Buddha


hadaya: heart.

hamsa: the mythical sacred goose/ swan.

hina: low, deprived, mean, inferior.

Hinayana: ' Small Vehicle '; Theravada is the term preferred by most Buddhists of south-east Asia.


hirs: modesty, the shame of being known to do bad deeds.

hita: good, welfare, beneficial.


idappaccayata - conditionality

iddhi: psychic power, success.

iddhipada: firmly established powers: will power; effort; consciousness; wisdom.

indriyas: controlloing faculties

iriyapatha: postures.


Isipatana : Saranath near Varanasi ( formerly Benares, Uttar Pradesh, India ) where the Buddha preached the first sermon.

itthayon: pleasant or desirable sense-object.


Jagarita: waking.

Jambudipa: the continent so called (according to ancient division of earth)

jara: ageing, decay

Jaramarana: ageing and death

Jataka stories: ; 547 tales of the Buddha in his previous existences. Usually referred to as 550 Jatakas in Burma.

jati: birth

jhana : level of deep calm, advanced states of meditation practice in which the mind is totally absorbed in its object of concentration; trance, tranquillity, mental absorption.

jhananga- factor of absorption (five)

vitakka - initial application

vicara - sustained application

psti - rapture

sukha - happiness

citt'ekaggata - one-pointedness of mind

Jivha: tongue.

Jivita: life.

jivitindriya - the life-faculty



kala: time.



kalyana: good deed, pleasant.

kalyanamitta: good friend, a virtuous friend, a spiritual friend

kalyana puthujjana: virtuous worldling

kama: desire, sensual pleasure.


kamadhatu - sense sphere realm

kamatanha - craving for sense pleasures

kamma:- volitional action, karma, destiny or fate/ Doctrine of inevitable consequence, work or action; principle of the law of cause and effect.

kammabhava - kammically accumulative existence



kammaniyama - the order of kamma, law of kamma




kammatthana - meditation object

kamathan: Meditation.


kammavatta - phase of kamma

kammawa: lacquered Scriptures.

kammavaca: a wording that ought to be uttered at time of performing a monastic procedure.







Kapilavatthu - the capital city of the Sakyans

kappa - an aeon, the lifespan of a world system

Karavika: an India bird noted for the beauty of its song.

Karaweik: Garuda, the royal bird mount of Vishnu.

Karuna: Compassion.

kasina - disc-like object of concentration

Kassapa: One of the 28 Buddhas, a famous Disciple of the Buddha

katattakama- miscellaneous kamma

kathina - the ceremony of robes- offering, following the end of the Vassa


kaya: body, form

kayakamma- bodily action

kayanupassana - contemplation of the body


kesa: hair (of head).

khana: moment, opportunity.

khandhaparinibbana - the extinguishing of the aggregate-continuum

khandhas: groups or aggregates; five in number (material form, feeling or sensation, perception, volitional impulses or tendencies and consciousness);

khanika - momentary

khanikasamadhi - momentary concentration

Khattiya: a member of warrior or noble class in ancient IndiaThe warrior caste In the Buddha's day, the highest social caste.


Khuddaka Nikaya

kilesa - defilement, a mental unwholesome state

kilesaparinibbana - the extinguishment of defilements

kiriya - the action of an arahat, not kamma

Kinnara and Kinnari: mythological hybrid creatures, half- human and half-bird.


Kondanna: the first Arahant and the most senior member of the Sangha. As a brahmin, he correctly predicted the future of the Prince Siddhatta.

kumara: boy, prince.

kusala : good, merit, skillful, wholesome.

kusala kammapathas: the ten bases of skillful action



kuts : hut, small house, lodging.

Kusinara : Kusinagare in Uttar Pradesh, India: small town where the Buddha passed away.